Theory of Constraints (TOC) - Application for Manufacturing
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Theory of Constraints (TOC) - Application for Manufacturing

About the Book

This eBook discusses the problems faced by manufacturing industries and shows the causes that are responsible for these problems. 

It explains in detail, TOC’s application for Manufacturing i.e. Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR) and Simplified-Drum-Buffer-Rope.

The eBook contains several Figures, Tables, Diagrams, Pictures, Charts, Graphs, examples, Quotes, Exercises and Games as appropriate. Most chapters are summarized in “Points to Ponder” at the end of certain chapters.

The eBook has some Multiple Choice Self-assessment questions. These questions help you to assess yourself the knowledge gained by you by reading this eBook.

This eBooks series is an excellent guide for those who want to learn TOC and its applications.


About the Author

Rajeev Athavale
Rajeev Athavale

I am a TOC consultant. I teach and implement TOC. I have been studying and trying TOC over a decade.

I am an ardent fan of ToC. For past few years, reading about TOC has moved me from “I am impressed” to “I like it” to “I want to know more…”. I did not realize when it became a passion for me. Now, I eat, sleep, walk and breath TOC.

By sheer accident, I came across the famous book “The Goal” and that changed my life. I went on reading Goldratt’s next book “Its not luck” and thereafter I read all his books. Fortunately, Internet is a great source of information and it opened up the wealth of knowledge for me.

As I did more and more research on TOC, I felt the need for crystallizing and documenting the knowledge that I gained. I created my own training material and conducted a two-day workshop on TOC in my company. Thanks to Internet, I kept on enriching my Training material.

Apart from my own consulting, I had the opportunity to work on a large TOC implementation called "Viable Vision". The project was implemented by Goldratt Consulting.

As a part of the project, I had undergone training from various experts from Goldratt Schools such as Oded Cohen, Mickey Granot, Philip Wiljoen, Eli Schragenheim, Humberto Baptista, Kiran Kothekar and Martin Powell.

Apart from the training and on the job experience, study of Goldratt’s webcast, Strategy & Tactics Trees, TOC Insights, TOC Simulators (GSIM, MICSS, PM SIM, and Distribution), TOC Games and TOC SLPs have helped me to enrich his TOC related knowledge.

My passion for learning, experimenting, sharing knowledge and achieving results continues...

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Table of Contents

Copyright Information   4

This book is dedicated to              5

Preface                6

I am thankful to…             8

What is Synchronized Manufacturing?   9

What are the Basic Rules of Manufacturing?        11

Types of Plants12

“V” type Plants12

“A” type Plants14

“T” type Plants  15

“I” Type Plants  16

The Vicious Cycle             17

The common Undesirable Effects (UDEs)              18

The Conflict        21

A resource standing idle is a major waste              23

The Work Ethics                28

Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR) – An Analogy29

Drum-Buffer-Rope System          32

Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR) More Details  37

Identify the Constraint  37

Choosing the Constraint               37

Factors for Choosing the Best Location for the Constraint              38

Choosing the Constraint for Control Purposes    38

Choosing Constraint for the “V” Type Plant          38

Choosing Constraint for the “A” Type Plant          38

Choosing Constraint for the “T” Type Plant           39

Choosing Constraint for Hybrids “X” and “Diamonds” Plant           39

Choosing the Buffer size               40

How should the tasks at non-constraints be prioritized?                40

How should the tasks of Support Functions be prioritized?           40

When is it necessary to expedite work?                41

Rules for monitoring the Buffer size        41

Buffer Management      42

Holes in Buffer Zones     42

Managing Holes in Constraint Buffer       43

Managing Holes in Assembly Buffer        43

Managing Holes in Shipping Buffer           43

Simplified-Drum-Buffer-Rope (SDBR)     46

How to Reverse the Vicious Cycle – The Solution               47

Capacity               48

Types of Capacity             48

Productive Capacity        48

Protective Capacity         48

Excess Capacity49

Capacity of Non-constraint          50

Idle Capacity      50

Balanced Plant  50

Cost of Capacity                50

TOC View on Batch Size and Setups         53

A Game to Show the Impact of Batching               54

MTS, MTA and MTO (From TOCICO dictionary)   56

Make-To-Stock (MTS)    56

Make-To-Order (MTO)  56

Make-To-Availability (MTA)        57


Self-Defeating Success  60

The Success        60

The Danger         60

The Defeat         60

The Way Out      60

Impact of Inventory on Competitive Edge            61

Impact of Inventory on Managing Quality             61

Impact of Inventory on Engineering Changes      62

Impact of Inventory on Margins                63

Impact of Inventory on Investment per Unit       64

Impact of Inventory on Due Date Performance  64

Impact of Inventory on Quoted Lead Times         65

How much Raw Material Inventory should we hold?       66

Summary             67

Self-assessment questions          70

eBooks published by Rajeev Athavale    74

Learner’s Guides              74

Article Repository            75

TOC Applications: Implementation Guidance for Small and Medium Size Enterprises        76

Bibliography       77

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