From Source Code To Machine Code
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From Source Code To Machine Code

Build Your Own Compiler From Scratch

About the Book

Build a compiler to learn how programming languages work. Use low-level assembly to learn how computers work.

Walks through a minimal yet complete compiler implementation. Compiles a static-typed language into x64 ELF executables.

  1. Simple interpreter. Get your own programming language up and running.
  2. Bytecode compiler. A step closer to the machine.
  3. x64 assembly & instruction encoding. Understand how the machine works.
  4. Translate bytecode to x64 code. Bridging the virtual machine to the real machine.
  5. Generate binary executables. Putting it all together.


Web version of the interpreter chapters.

You may also like: Build Your Own X Series

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    • Computers and Programming
    • Python
    • Software Engineering
    • Computer Science
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Educational software development materials.

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The Book
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The Book + Source Code + Additional Links

1. Source code for each chapter. 2. Additional links to recommended resources.


  • extras

    - Source code for each chapter. - Additional links to recommended resources.

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  • English

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Table of Contents

Part I: Interpreter

    A Simple Calculator
    Interpreter: Variables and Scopes
    Interpreter: Control Flows and Functions

Part II: Bytecode Compiler

    How Computers Work
    The Virtual Machine and Bytecode
    Compiler: Variables and Expressions
    Compiler: Control Flows
    Compiler: Functions and Non-Local Variables

Part III: Machine Code

    A Crash Course on x64 Assembly
    The x64 Instruction Encoding
    From Virtual Machine to Real Machine
    Binary Executables
    Pointers and Memory

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