Software Architecture
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Software Architecture

visual lecture notes

About the Book

These are the revised and illustrated notes of the Software Architecture lecture of the Master in Software and Data Engineering held at the Software Institute at USI Lugano, Switzerland during the Spring of 2020.

The book includes the script for these lectures:

  1. Introduction
  2. Quality Attributes
  3. Definitions
  4. Modeling Software Architecture
  5. Modularity and Components
  6. Reusability and Interfaces
  7. Composability and Connectors
  8. Compatibility and Coupling
  9. Deployability, Portability and Containers
  10. Scalability
  11. Availability and Services
  12. Flexibility and Microservices

About the Author

Cesare Pautasso
Cesare Pautasso

Cesare Pautasso is full professor at the Software Institute at USI, Lugano, Switzerland. Previously he was a researcher at the IBM Zurich Research Lab (2007). His research group focuses on the Architecture, design and engineering of next-generation Web information systems, RESTful Conversations, Liquid Software and ASQ. He is the co-author of the book "SOA with REST" (2012), "Just Send an Email: Anti-Patterns for Email-Centric Organizations" (2015) and the "BPMN Sketch Miner" (2019) and currently collecting his lecture notes on "Software Architecture" (published on LeanPub). He is currently co-editing the IEEE Software Insights department.

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
    • De Architectura
      • The Art and Science of Building
      • Foundation
      • Platforms
      • Closed
      • Open
      • Interfaces
      • Forces
    • When do you need an architect?
      • How Large?
    • Software Architecture
      • Lecture Context
    • Why Software Architecture?
      • Hiding Complexity
      • Abstraction
      • Communication
      • Representation
      • Visualization
      • Quality
      • Change
      • Evolution
  • Quality Attributes
    • Quality
      • Functional, Extra-Functional Qualities
      • Internal vs. External
      • Static vs. Dynamic
      • Meta-Qualities
    • Quality Attributes
    • Design Qualities
      • Feasibility
        • Affordability
        • Slack
        • Time to Market
      • Modularity
      • Reusability
      • Design Consistency
      • Simplicity
      • Complexity
      • Clarity
      • Stability
      • Composability
      • Deployability
    • Normal Operation Qualities
      • Performance
      • Scalability
      • Capacity
      • Usability
      • Ease of Support
      • Serviceability
      • Visibility
    • Dependability Qualities
      • Reliability
      • Availability
    • Security Qualities
      • Defensibility, Survivability
      • Privacy
    • Change Qualities
      • Flexibility
      • Configurability
      • Customizability
      • Resilience, Adaptability
      • Extensibility, Modifiability
      • Elasticity
      • Compatibility
        • Portability
        • Interoperability
        • Ease of Integration
    • Long Term Qualities
      • Durability
      • Maintainability
        • Types of Maintenance
      • Sustainability
  • Definitions
    • Who is a software architect?
      • Functional Organization
      • Cross-Functional Organization
      • Facilitate Communication
      • Software Engineering Lead
      • Technology Expert
      • Risk Management
      • Architect Tribes
    • Software Architecture and the Software Development Lifecycle
      • Bridge the Gap
      • Think Outside the Box
      • Evolutionary Model
      • Agile Unified Process
      • System Lifecycle
    • Defining Software Architecture
      • Architecture vs. Code
      • Architecture vs. Technology
      • Architecture vs. Design
      • Basic Definition
    • Design Decisions
      • Design Process
      • Design Decisions
      • Decision Making Phases
      • Decision Trees
      • Design Outcome
    • Modeling Architecture
      • Can this skeleton fly?
      • Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Architecture
      • Green Field Development
      • Brown Field Development
    • Architectural Degradation
      • Causes of Architectural Drift
      • From Drift to Erosion
      • Entropy
    • Architecture or Code First?
      • Architecture Hoisting
      • Presumptive vs. Reference
      • Solution vs. Product
      • M-Architecture vs. T-Architecture
        • The \$10000 boolean flag
      • Art or Science?
      • Science or Art?
      • References
  • Modeling
    • Capturing the Architecture
      • What is modeling?
        • Abstraction and Interpretation
        • Solving Problems with Models
        • Question first, Model second
      • Scope of the Model
    • What is a view?
      • How many views?
      • Multiple Views
      • View Consistency
    • Domain and Design Models
      • Modeling = Learning
      • Domain Model
        • Example Domain Model
      • Design Model
        • Example Design Model (Interfaces)
        • Example Design Model (Implementation)
    • Some Modeling Notations
      • Use Case Scenarios
        • Example Music Player Scenarios
      • Feature Models
        • Feature Model Example
        • Feature Model Constraints
        • Constrained Feature Model Example
        • Feature Configuration
    • From C4 to C5
      • System Context View
        • System Context View Example
      • Containers View
        • Container View Example
        • Example Containers
      • Components View
        • Components View Example
      • C4
      • Classes View
      • C5
      • Connectors View
        • Connectors View Example
    • 4+1
      • Logical View
        • Logical View Notation
        • Example Logical View
      • Process View
        • Example Process View
      • Development View
        • Example Development View
      • Physical View
        • Example Deployment View
    • Content is more important than representation
      • Model Quality
      • Accuracy vs. Precision
        • Model Quality - Advice
    • Model-Driven Architecture
      • References
  • Modularity and Components
    • What is a Software Component?
      • Hardware Component
      • Software Component
      • Examples: Application-specific Components
      • Examples: Infrastructure Components
      • Black Box
      • Recursive Components
      • Clustering Components
      • Design vs. Run-time
      • Distributed Components
    • Component Lifecycle Decisions
      • Externally Sourced Components
        • Discovery
        • Selection
        • Integration
        • Test
        • Release
        • Deploy
      • Stateful Components
        • Migration
        • Backup and Recovery
      • Properties of Components
    • Component Roles
      • Stateless vs. Stateful
      • Stateless vs. Stateful Code
      • Stateless vs. Stateful Operations
    • Components vs. Objects
    • Component Technology
      • Component Frameworks
      • Component Frameworks Demo Videos
      • Where to find components?
    • Buy vs. Build
      • How much does it cost?
      • References
  • Reusability and Interfaces
    • Interfaces
      • Component Interface
        • Provided Interface
        • Provided Interfacesand Component Roles
        • Required Interface
      • Explicit Interfaces Principle
    • Information Hiding
      • Effective Encapsulation
        • Example
    • Describing Interfaces
      • Principle of Least Surprise
      • Easy to use?
    • Interface Description Languages
      • Java/RMI
      • C/RPC
      • RAML
      • OpenAPI/Swagger
      • Working With IDL
      • API Documentation Demo Videos
    • What is an API?
      • Is it really API?
      • Many Applications
      • Developers, Developers, Developers
    • Where to find APIs?
      • Operating Systems
      • Programming Languages
      • Hardware Access
      • User Interfaces
      • Databases
      • Web Services
    • API Design
      • Where is the API?
      • API Design: Where to start?
        • Who to please?
      • Reusable Interfaces
        • Usability vs. Reusability
        • Easy to reuse?
        • Performance vs. Reusability
      • Small Interfaces Principle
        • How many clients can these APIs satisfy?
      • Uniform Access Principle
      • Few Interfaces Principle
      • Clear Interfaces Principle
        • Let's create a new Window
        • Expressive? No: Stringly Typed
        • Consistent?
        • Primitive Operations
      • Design Advice
      • References
  • Composability and Connectors
    • Software Connectors
      • Connector: enabler of composition
      • Software Connector
    • Components vs. Connectors
      • Connectors are Abstractions
      • Connector Roles and Runtime Qualities
      • Connectors and Transparency
      • Connector Cardinality
      • Connectors and Distribution
      • Connectors and Availability
    • Software Connector Examples
      • RPC: Remote Procedure Call
      • File Transfer
      • Shared Database
      • Message Bus
      • Stream
      • Linkage
      • Shared Memory
      • Disruptor
      • Tuple Space
      • Web
      • Blockchain
      • References
  • Compatibility and Coupling
    • Compatibility
      • Compatible Interfaces
      • There's an app adapter for that!
      • Adapter
      • Wrapper
      • Mismatch Example
      • Partial Wrappers
    • Types of Interface Mismatches
      • Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Interfaces
      • Half-Sync/Half-Async
        • Sync to Async Adapter
      • Half-Async/Half-Sync
        • Async to Sync Adapter
    • How many Adapters?
      • Scaling Adapters with N Interfaces
      • Composing Adapters
      • One or Two Adapters?
      • Reusable Adapters and Performance
      • How Standards Proliferate
      • On Standards
      • Standard Software Interfaces
        • Representation Formats
        • Operations
        • Protocols
        • Addressing
        • Interface Description
    • Coupling
      • Understanding Coupling
      • Coupling Facets
        • Session Coupling Examples
        • Binding Times
    • Be liberal in what you accept, and conservative in what you send.
    • Water or Gas Pipe?
      • References
  • Deployability, Portability and Containers
    • The Age of Continuity
      • Deployability Metrics
      • Release
      • Release Frequency
      • Speed vs. Quality
    • Software Production Pipeline
      • High Quality at High Speed
      • Types of Testing
      • Types of Release
        • Gradual Phase-In
        • Essential Continuous Engineering Practices
      • Tools
      • Build Pipeline Demo Videos
      • Container Orchestration Demo Videos
    • Virtualization and Containers
      • Virtualization
      • Lightweight Virtualization with Containers
      • VM vs. Container
        • Containers inside VMs
      • Images and Snapshots
        • Virtual Machine Migration
      • Inverted Hypervisor
    • Virtual Hardware = Software
      • References
  • Scalability
    • Will it scale?
      • Scalability and Workload
      • Scalability and Workload: Centralized
      • How to scale?
      • Scalability and Resources: Decentralized
      • Scalability and Resources
        • Centralized or Decentralized?
    • Scalability at Scale
      • Scale Up or Scale Out?
      • Scaling Dimensions
    • Scalability Patterns
      • Directory
      • Dependency Injection
        • Directory vs. Dependency Injection
      • Scatter/Gather
      • Master/Worker
        • Master Responsibilities
        • Worker Responsibilities
      • Load Balancing
        • Variants
      • Sharding
        • Computing the Shard Key
        • Looking up the Shard Key
      • References
  • Availability and Services
    • Components vs. Services
      • Business model: how to sell
      • Design decisions
      • Technology: how to use
    • Availability
      • Availability Questions
      • Monitoring Availability
        • Which kind of monitor?
      • Availability Incidents
      • Downtime Impact
    • Contain Failure Impact
      • Retry
      • Circuit Breaker
      • Canary Call
    • Redundancy
      • State Replication
        • Which kind of replication?
      • CAP Theorem
        • CAP Theorem Proof
      • Eventual Consistency
      • Event Sourcing
      • References
  • Flexibility and Microservices
    • API Evolution
      • Only one chance...
      • API Evolution
      • API Compatibility
      • Semantic Versioning
      • Changes and the Build Pipeline
      • Version Identifier
      • Two in Production
      • API Sunrise and Sunset
    • To break or not to break
      • Who should keep it compatible?
      • Layers
        • Layering Examples
        • Data on the Inside, Data on the Outside
      • Tolerant Reader
        • Which kind of reader?
    • Extensibility
      • Extensibility and Plugins
    • Microservices
      • Monolith vs. Microservices
    • Will this component always terminate?
    • Will this service run forever?
    • Will this microservice continuously change?
      • DevOps
      • DevOps Requirements
    • Feature Toggles
    • How small is a Microservice?
    • Continuous Evolution
    • Hexagon Model
    • Decomposition
      • Independent DevOps Lifecycle
      • Isolated Microservices
      • Splitting the Monolith
    • Microservice Best Practices
      • Bezos's Mandate (2002)
      • Evans's Bounded Context (2004)
      • Bob Martin's Single Responsibility Principle (2003)
      • UNIX Philosophy (1978)
      • Separation of Concerns (1974)
      • Parnas's Criteria (1971)
      • Conway's Law (1968)
      • Vogels's Lesson (2006)
      • References

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