Exploring Requirements Two
Exploring Requirements Two
First Steps to Design
About the Book
John von Neumann once said, "There's no sense being exact about something if you don't even know what you're talking about." In a world that is growing increasingly dependent on highly complex, computer-based systems, the importance of defining what you want to make before making it—that is, knowing what you're talking about—cannot be stressed enough.
Here's an innovative book that gives you the understanding you need to give people the solutions they want. The collaborative team of Gause and Weinberg tells how you can assure the requirements are right—before the product is designed.
Written by two recognized authorities in the field, this book is a collection of ideas developed, refined, and tested during their more than sixty combined years of work with both large and small organizations.
The techniques formulated in Exploring Requirements are not confined to software development; they have been used effectively to develop a wide range of products and systems—from computer software to furniture, books, and buildings.
Systems analysts and anyone involved with the challenges of the requirements process will greatly benefit from this book.
Renowned leaders in the software industry have this to say about Exploring Requirements:
"Anyone who wants to build a product should understand this book."—Watts S. Humphrey, SEI
"Consciousness raising for systems analysts." —Tom Demarco, Atlantic Systems Guild
". . . a superb new book on systems analysis. . . . you simply must read and absorb this gem. It complements every brand-name systems analysis methodology currently being practiced." —Ed Yourdon, American Programmer
". . . provides an excellent set of principles amply illustrated by relevant and thought-provoking examples."—Barry Boehm, UCLA
"The title lays it out, that exploring requirements does imply quality before design, and the text provides the social, psychological, and intellectual processes to carry it out. Gause and Weinberg are unique in their experiences and abilities in the subject."— Harlan D. Mills, Florida Institute of Technology
- Exploring Requirements Two: First Steps to Design
- Preface to the Ebook Version
- Part IV Clarifying Expectations
Chapter 14. Functions
14.1 Defining a Function
- 14.1.1 Existence function
- 14.1.2 Testing for a function
14.2 Capturing All and Only Functions
- 14.2.1 Capturing all potential functions
- 14.2.2 Understanding evident, hidden, and frill functions
- 14.2.3 Identifying overlooked functions
- 14.2.4 Avoiding implied solutions
- 14.2.5 The “Get It If You Can” list
- 14.3 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 14.4 Summary
- 14.1 Defining a Function
Chapter 15. Attributes
- 15.1 Attribute Wish List
15.2 Transforming the Wish List
- 15.2.1 Distinguishing between attributes and attribute details
- 15.2.2 Uncovering attribute ambiguity
- 15.2.3 Organizing the list
- 15.2.4 Discovering insights from the transformed list
15.3 Assigning Attributes to Functions
- 15.3.1 How attributes can modify functions
- 15.3.2 Gaining insights from the new format
15.4 Excluding Attributes
- 15.4.1 Categorizing into must, want, and ignore attributes
- 15.4.2 Implicit versus explicit elimination of attributes
- 15.5 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 15.6 Summary
Chapter 16. Constraints
- 16.1 Defining Constraints
- 16.2 Thinking of Constraints as Boundaries
16.3 Testing the Constraints
- 16.3.1 Too strict?
- 16.3.2 Not strict enough?
- 16.3.4 Generating new ideas
- 16.4 Interrelated Constraints
- 16.5 Overconstraint
16.6 The Psychology of Constraints
- 16.6.1 The tilt concept
- 16.6.2 Breaking constraints
- 16.6.3 The self-esteem-bad-design cycle
16.7 Constraint Produces Freedom
- 16.7.1 Standards
- 16.7.2 Languages and other tools
- 16.8 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 16.9 Summary
Chapter 17. Preferences
17.1 Defining a Preference
- 17.1.1 An example of preferences
- 17.1.2 The origin of preferences
17.2 Making Preferences Measurable
- 17.2.1 A reasonable approach to metrics
- 17.2.2 Making the preference measurable
17.3 Distinguishing Between Constraints and Preferences
- 17.3.1 Is meeting the schedule a constraint?
17.4 Constrained Preferences
- 17.4.1 What’s-it-worth? graphs
- 17.4.2 When-do-you-need-it? graphs
17.5 Reframing Constraints into Preferences
- 17.5.1 Trading off among preferences
- 17.5.2 Zeroth Law of Product Development
- 17.6 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 17.7 Summary
- 17.1 Defining a Preference
Chapter 18. Expectations
18.1 Reasons to Limit Expectations
- 18.1.1 People are not perfect
- 18.1.2 People are not logical
- 18.1.3 People perceive things differently
- 18.1.4 Designers are people, too
18.2 Applying the Expectation Limitation Process
- 18.2.1 Generate a specific expectation list
- 18.2.2 The elevator example
- 18.2.3 Generalize the expectation list
- 18.2.4 Limit the expectations
18.3 Limitations Need Not Be Limiting
- 18.3.1 The wheelchair example
- 18.3.2 Keeping possibilities open
- 18.3.3 Include the source of the limitation
- 18.4 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 18.5 Summary
- 18.1 Reasons to Limit Expectations
- Part V Greatly Improving the Odds of Success
Chapter 19. Ambiguity Metrics
19.1 Measuring Ambiguity
- 19.1.1 Using the ambiguity poll
- 19.1.2 Applying the polling method
- 19.1.3 Polling on different bases
19.2 Using the Metric as a Test
- 19.2.1 Measuring three kinds of ambiguity
- 19.2.2 Interpreting the results
- 19.2.3 Information from clustering
- 19.2.4 Choosing the group to be polled
- 19.3 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 19.4 Summary
- 19.1 Measuring Ambiguity
Chapter 20. Technical Reviews
- 20.1 A Walkover Example
20.2 The Role of Technical Reviews
- 20.2.1 Formal and informal reviews
- 20.2.2 Technical reviews versus project reviews
20.3 Review Reports
- 20.3.1 The need for review reports
- 20.3.2 Creating the issues list
- 20.3.3 Technical review summary report
20.4 Principal Types of Review
- 20.4.1 Vanilla reviews
- 20.4.2 Inspections
- 20.4.3 Walkthroughs
- 20.4.4 Round-robin reviews
- 20.5 Real Versus Ideal Reviews
- 20.6 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 20.7 Summary
Chapter 21. Measuring Satisfaction
21.1 Creating a User Satisfaction Test
- 21.1.1 Test attributes
- 21.1.2 A custom test for each project
21.2 Using the Test
- 21.2.1 Benefits
- 21.2.2 Plotting shifts and trends
- 21.2.3 Interpreting the comments
- 21.2.4 Feelings are facts
21.3 Other Uses of the Test
- 21.3.1 A communication vehicle
- 21.3.2 Continued use throughout the project
21.4 Other Tests
- 21.4.1 Prototypes as satisfaction tests
- 21.5 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 21.6 Summary
- 21.1 Creating a User Satisfaction Test
Chapter 22. Test Cases
22.1 Black Box Testing
- 22.1.1 External versus internal knowledge
- 22.1.2 Constructing black box test cases
- 22.1.3 Testing the Test Cases
22.2 Applying the Test Cases
- 22.2.1 Examples
- 22.2.2 Iterating tests and answers
- 22.2.3 Clearly specifying ambiguity
- 22.3 Documenting the Test Cases
- 22.4 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 22.5 Summary
- 22.1 Black Box Testing
Chapter 23. Studying Existing Products
- 23.1 Use of the Existing Product as the Norm
- 23.2.1 What’s missing in the new product?
- 23.2.2 Why is it missing?
- 23.2.3 What’s missing in the old product?
- 23.2.4 What’s missing in the old requirements?
- 23.3 Substituting Features for Functions
- 23.4 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 23.5 Summary
Chapter 24. Making Agreements
24.1 Where Decisions Come From
- 24.1.1 Choices, assumptions, and impositions
- 24.1.2 Elevator design decision examples
- 24.1.3 Writing traceable requirements
24.2 Where False Assumptions Come From
- 24.2.1 Lack of valid information
- 24.2.2 Invalidation over time
- 24.2.3 The turnpike effect
- 24.2.4 Requirements leakage
- 24.3 Converting Decisions to Agreements
- 24.4 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 24.5 Summary
- 24.1 Where Decisions Come From
Chapter 25. Ending
- 25.1 The Fear of Ending
25.2 The Courage to End It All
- 25.2.1 Automatic design and development
- 25.2.2 Hacking
- 25.2.3 Freezing requirements
- 25.2.4 The renegotiation process
- 25.2.5 The fear of making assumptions explicit
- 25.3 The Courage to Be Inadequate
- 25.4 Helpful Hints and Variations
- 25.5 Summary
- Chapter of References
- Further Reading
The Leanpub 45-day 100% Happiness Guarantee
Within 45 days of purchase you can get a 100% refund on any Leanpub purchase, in two clicks.
See full terms
Free Updates. DRM Free.
If you buy a Leanpub book, you get free updates for as long as the author updates the book! Many authors use Leanpub to publish their books in-progress, while they are writing them. All readers get free updates, regardless of when they bought the book or how much they paid (including free).
Most Leanpub books are available in PDF (for computers), EPUB (for phones and tablets) and MOBI (for Kindle). The formats that a book includes are shown at the top right corner of this page.
Finally, Leanpub books don't have any DRM copy-protection nonsense, so you can easily read them on any supported device.
Ansible for KubernetesJeff Geerling
Ansible is a powerful infrastructure automation tool. Kubernetes is a powerful application deployment platform. Learn how to use these tools to automate massively-scalable, highly-available infrastructure.
Functional Design and ArchitectureAlexander Granin
Software Design in Functional Programming, Design Patterns and Practices, Methodologies and Application Architectures. How to build real software in Haskell with less efforts and low risks. The first complete source of knowledge.
Production HaskellMatt Parsons
Are you excited about Haskell, but don't know where to begin? Are you thrilled by the technical advantages, but worried about the unknown pitfalls? This book has you covered.
Ansible for DevOpsJeff Geerling
Ansible is a simple, but powerful, server and configuration management tool. Learn to use Ansible effectively, whether you manage one server—or thousands.
Tame your Work FlowSteve Tendon and Daniel Doiron
Do you need a high performance enterprise governance approach improving management, execution and delivery while dealing with multiple projects/products, events, stakeholders and teams? Giving you better bottom line results, faster time to market, less work, better predictability, happier employees, and delighted clients? Then learn about TameFlow!
Practical FP in Scala: A hands-on approachGabriel Volpe
A practical book aimed for those familiar with functional programming in Scala who are yet not confident about architecting an application from scratch.
Together, we will develop a purely functional application using the best libraries in the Cats ecosystem, while learning about design patterns and best practices.
Composing SoftwareEric Elliott
All software design is composition: the act of breaking complex problems down into smaller problems and composing those solutions. Most developers have a limited understanding of compositional techniques. It's time for that to change.
Algebra-Driven DesignSandy Maguire
A how-to field guide on building leak-free abstractions and algebraically designing real-world applications.
Invest In Digital Health - The Medical Futurist's GuideDr. Bertalan Mesko
Artificial Intelligence and Digital Health are booming. In this book, we explain why now it's a good time to invest in Digital Health and give recommendations on where to invest by looking at the top 24 technological trends we find the most promising.
The Hundred-Page Machine Learning BookAndriy Burkov
Everything you really need to know in Machine Learning in a hundred pages.
The Tester's Library
8 BooksThe Tester's Library consists of eight five-star books that every software tester should read and re-read. As bound books, this collection would cost over $200. Even as e-books, their price would exceed $80, but in this bundle, their cost is only $49.99. Here are the books, and why they should be in your library: Perfect Software and Other...
11 BooksIn this bundle, you will find 10 different agile books. They are about different aspects of being agile. - finding a job - doing coding dojo's - Retrospectives - Personal kanban - a non-typical coaching book and even a book that gives you an insight in the lives of some agile people.
WTFlop 6M + HU - Beta Bundle
Marionette.js A to Z
Build A Better Backbone App
3 BooksThe best way to learn new development skills is through experience, but that takes time you don't have.Get the best of both worlds with this bundle: you'll learn how to produce modern web applications by learning from experienced developers like Derick Bailey and David Sulc. BackboneJS is one of the favorite tools on the web today, but it...
General Systems Thinker Bundle
5 BooksThe General Systems Thinker Bundle is just that: a bundle of five books to advance the reader one giant step toward improved thinking, based on General Systems principles. Four of the books are the complete General Systems Series. The fifth is fictional piece which shows some general systems thinkers in action. It's a mystery in which a group of...
Experiential Learning Bundle
4 BooksThis bundle provides all four volumes of the popular Experiential Learning Series at a savings of $20 over the price if purchased separately.
2 BooksAfter getting up and running with Ansible in Jeff Geerling's Ansible for DevOps, strengthen your skills managing tens to thousands of instances and services in Amazon's AWS cloud with Yan Kurniawan's Ansible for AWS.
Learn ECMAScript 6 inside and out
2 BooksFor any technology, it helps to get multiple points of view on the functionality to get the best possible understanding. For ECMAScript 6/2015, no two resources are recommended more frequently thanExploring ES6by Dr. Axel Rauschmayer andUnderstanding ECMAScript 6by Nicholas C. Zakas. These two points of view, investigating the specification and...
NetBeans Platform Starter Kit
2 BooksIn this bundle, you get a complete introduction to the NetBeans Platform APIs, together with many exercises, in the form of "NetBeans Platform for Beginners". This book is done and has been reviewed and is over 350 pages in length. It will continue to grow as more content is added over time. There will be monthly updates, with new sections,...