Correlation Is Not Causation
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Correlation Is Not Causation

Learn How to Avoid the 5 Traps That Even Pros Fall Into

About the Book


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Correlation Is Not Causation.

You know it and I know it, and yet we are constantly having to be reminded of it because we can’t seem to help but get it wrong.


How many times have you heard someone really smart say something like ‘wow, this correlation has a p-value of 0.000001 so A must be causing B…’?

It’s not our fault though – we’re only human. We seek explanation for patterns and events that happen around us, and if something defies logic, we try to find a reason why it might make sense. If something doesn’t add up, we make it up.


OK, so if correlation does not necessarily imply causation, there must be a reason for that, and there must be something that is causing what we observe. That is what this book is all about.


If we discover a correlation between a pair of variables there are five alternatives to one being the direct cause of the other, and we’ll unmask all five in this book.

Then, once we understand each of these alternatives, we’ll formulate a plan to discover whether we have a direct causal link or whether there is some other explanation.


Correlation Is Not Causation explains how to systematically test for the five most common correlation-causation pitfalls that even the pros fall into (occasionally). We’ll learn to create strategies to analyse the data and interpret the results in a way that is easy to understand.

Best of all, there is no technical or statistical jargon – it is written in plain English.

It is packed with visually intuitive examples and makes no assumptions about your previous experience with correlations – in short, it is perfect for beginners!


Discover the world of correlation and causation. Get this book, TODAY!

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About the Author

Lee Baker
Lee Baker

Lee Baker is an award-winning software creator with a passion for turning data into a story.

A proud Yorkshireman, he now lives by the sparkling shores of the East Coast of Scotland.

Physicist, statistician and programmer, child of the flower-power psychedelic ‘60s, it’s amazing he turned out so normal!

Turning his back on a promising academic career to do something more satisfying, as the CEO and co-founder of Chi-Squared Innovations he now works double the hours for half the pay and 10 times the stress - but 100 times the fun!

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Table of Contents


The Nature of Correlation and Causation

Correlation and Causation – Definitions

Direct Causation

1. Wrong Direction Causation

2. The Third Cause Fallacy

3. Indirect Causation

4. Cyclic Causation

5. Coincidental Causation

Avoiding the 5 Traps of Correlation v Causation

The Dangers of Declaring Direct Causation

1. Slaying the Beast of Wrong Direction Causation

2. Slaying the Beast of The Third Cause Fallacy

3. Slaying the Beast of Indirect Causation

4. Slaying the Beast of Cyclic Causation

5. Slaying the Beast of Coincidental Causation


About the Author

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