#tagcoding handbook
#tagcoding handbook
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Table of Contents

Publisher

Wikinetix

Acacialaan 6

2390 Westmalle

Belgium

E-mail: info@wikinetix.com

www.wikinetix.com


 

The ISIC and COFOG class numbers and names describing the tags are from International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities, Rev.4 (2008) and Classification of the Functions of Government (2000) by United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division © 2008, 2000 United Nations. The ISIC and COFOG class numbers and names are reprinted with written expresses permission of the United Nations.

Preface to the third edition

Following the publication of the recommendations by the UN Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Digital Cooperation, it seems fair to claim that by practicing #tagcoding and #tag2wiki one shows a commitment to the Declaration of Digital Interdependence:

The Declaration of Digital Interdependence (June 10, 2019)
The Declaration of Digital Interdependence (June 10, 2019)

In the third edition have been added:

  • Chapter 2.10 #Tagcoding and decision making journeys: Do-Check-Plan-Act explains how the #tagcoding and #tag2wiki eco-system models could supply knowledge and information to innumerable development partners improving their work systems;
  • Chapter 2.8 Leading in the Age of Digital Interdependence explains briefly how #tagcoding and #tag2wiki practices fit some of the recommendations of the UN Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Digital Cooperation;
  • Chapter 7 on and Annex 4 with the coding hashtags for the Central Product Classification;
  • Annex 5 with the coding hashtags for all the sustainable development goals and targets.

The eighty pages of annexes with coding hashtags are not intended for linear reading. The inclusion of the annexes gives support to readers using in-document search to look up #tagcoding hashtags for a topic. The online pages to which links are provided contain additional information that is not included in this e-book, for instance:

  • the #tagcoding pivot for over 190 countries in the six official languages of the UN;
  • definitions from the COFOG, ISIC, and CPC classifications;
  • WWlgu #tagcoding hashtags for tens of thousands local government units around the world;
  • for each sustainable development goal, there is information on the functions of government and the economic activities that are best placed to contribute to achieving the goal; and there are links to the engagements for the goal on the United Nations Partnerships for SDGs platform;
  • for each economic activity with #isic hashtag, the wiki page lists corresponding CPC codes and coding hashtags, and vice versa.

In summary, the eighty boring pages of the annexes provide an entrypoint into an online resource of several thousands of wiki pages and links to databases.

My special gratitude goes to Gérard Chenais who translated the second edition of the #tagcoding handbook into French: “Manual de #tagcodage”. During the translation a small number of readability improvements were included in the French translation of the 2nd edition:

  • ISIC and COFOG class urls in the annexes have been replaced by a far smaller number of urls for COFOG divisions and ISIC sections;
  • The landing views for the #tagcoding pivots have been redesigned so that they fit on a single screen of a mobile phone (Chapter 3.5 #Tagcoding pivot pages per country);
  • The figures have been improved.

These improvements have been included also in this third edition of the #tagcoding handbook.

I am aware that the book is rather brief in explaining the figures and tools. Why using many words if a figure says more than a thousand words? Suggestions pointing out which figures or tools need more explanation are most welcome in the Forum of this book and at the book’s feedback page.

Following the first translation of the #tagcoding handbook, and referring to the vision of advancing human development through shaping a common digital future, I wish to draw your attention to a call for translators and wiki-editors that will bring the #tagcoding and #tag2wiki skills into practice in as many languages as feasible.

If English isn’t your native language, may be you can contribute to affordable and accessible digital technology in your native language. Check it out at the Global Innovation Exchange: #tagcoding and #tag2wiki for an accelerated localization of knowledge for sustainable development, or contact me via Twitter or LinkedIn.

The author, Malle, June 16, 2019.


Preface to the second edition

The second edition of the #tagcoding handbook was long overdue after the Sustainable Development Goals were launched at the United Nations General Assembly of September 2015. It comes also at the right time. On October 5, 2018 I received notification that the Actor Atlas #tagcoding pivots for the 2030 Agenda have been included as resources in the Global Sustainable Consumption and Production Clearinghouse.

Three new chapters have been added in this edition: the 2nd chapter about pivotal points in the history of knowledge creation and how they lead to the #tagcoding business model, the 3rd chapter about tools for looking up coding hashtags, the 4th chapter with the coding hashtags for the sustainable development goals and targets, and Chapter 8 and Annex 4 with the coding hashtags for the Central Product Classification. The sustainable development goals and targets are four years old now, but we still have 11 years to go until 2030. It is for those years that #tagcoding will be an essential digital skill.

After reading this book, please use the proposed hashtags when sharing your content. The more people use #tagcoding, the faster we will overcome digital and other divides that slow down the broadbased localization of knowledge for sustainable development. On the internet and social media, #tagcoding empowers the reader.

If reading this book leaves you with questions, do not hesitate to use the Forum of this book, the book’s feedback page, the comment sections at any of the wikis referenced in this book, or suitable coding hashtags. Ask questions sooner rather than later.

Alongside with #tagcoding also the creation of mutually linked wikis with curated knowledge - #tag2wiki - and the authoring and lean publishing of e-books leveraging #tagcoding - #lean2book - are important digital skills for the localization and translation of knowledge. Related topics are addressed in posts and wikis, before they will become part of a handbook. More wiki and e-book related insights may be added in later editions of this handbook, or in a new handbook.

The business model presented in this handbook, and the handbook itself, build upon a number of great resources. I am grateful to anyone who has put an effort in creating and improving those resources. The Wikidot wikifarm has offered a low cost, yet powerful platform to experiment with the wiki-related ideas that have initiated the journey leading to this handbook. In the handbook you will read about the #tagcoding pivot. It is a single wiki page that contains content that in this book takes about 40 to 50 pages. Without Twitter it is fair to say that #tagcoding at the scale envisioned in this handbook wouldn’t be thinkable. There is the saying that a picture says more than a thousand words. As my mastery of language may be insufficient to explain in a compelling way the future use of the internet and social media that I envisioned many years ago, building upon past transformations sparked by innovative communications technology. The ArchiMate standard and the Archi modelling tool were very helpful in drawing up a few small models and make a long story short. Last but not least there is the Leanpub publishing platform that holds a great promise, including for knowledge localization.

My special gratitude goes to Teody Trivilegio who has been creating most of the non-English pages of the Actor Atlas, and most of the local government unit pages, as well as many other pages in the network of wikis that Wikinetix is providing.

Finally, my gratitude goes to my wife and our daughter for the love and patience.

The author, Malle, October 9, 2018.


1. Introduction

The internet brings vast new possibilities for curiosity, ingenuity and creativity. And during the past two decades it has transformed how we find and share our ideas, information and knowledge.

Search engines with Google as the trailblazer offer the fastest way to find answers to many questions.

Open online encyclopedia exist in many languages. Wikipedia was launched in 2001 and is available in over 300 languages.

Micro blogs such as Twitter, launched in 2006, offer incredible sharing possibilities as well as great retrieval options when hashtags are used in a smart way.

In spite of all opportunities enabled by the internet, the localization of knowledge, as described by Nobel laureate Joseph Stiglitz for the inauguration of the Global Development Network (2000), progresses at a slow speed. Information overload in the major languages, and an insufficient provision of content in most languages and on many topics contribute to a slow learning for more sustainable and inclusive development.

What can we do to make a better use of the internet and social media? The mission of Wikinetix is to promote and demonstrate the joint impact of three digital skills:

  • #tagcoding means that one uses standardized hashtags to relate online information to specific topics in order to structure it and retrieve it easily;
  • #tag2wiki is about creating, maintaining, and coordinating wikis for development communications;
  • #lean2book is about authoring and publishing e-books that leverage #tagcoding and #tag2wiki wikis.

The #tagcoding - #tag2wiki - #lean2book business model that is elaborated more in chapter 2.7 offers several features for accelerated knowledge localization. Whereas #tagcoding is a digital skill within the reach of everyone, the #tag2wiki and #lean2book skills require some extra investment of time and means. A possible mission is the creation of a multi-dimensional topic wiki in any local language via the topic driven translation of a reference wiki. Once such a wiki is available it can support the curation of content - tagged for a country - into the languages of the country, the discovery of neglected topics, and the rapid provision by translation of new reference content.

Hence, the #tagcoding - #tag2wiki - #lean2book business model is a general purpose collaborative counter-measure for the information overload and other imperfections of the mainstream internet and its use. The proposed coding hashtags and the related editing of wikis will empower users in the instructive and productive use of the internet.

How you will exploit #tagcoding and the other digital skills building upon it, is up to you to explore and learn. It depends on where you are in your personal development and what responsibilities you have been endowed with in business or society. This handbook proposes to be a companion for the first episode in your #tagcoding journey.

Guidance and inspiration on your possible uses of the tags and wikis can also be obtained by exploring one of these open access online resources:

The “coding hashtags” cover topics that are of interest to active and reflective people in all possible professions and areas of study, in all countries of the world, and in all languages spoken.

By #tagcoding social media and online content, we can make it globally discoverable and retrievable as if it was put in everyone’s personal library.

On the internet this library is globally accessible. By using territorial #WWlgu hashtags we can create locally relevant sections in the global online library. The #2030library hashtag and a dedicated part of the Wikinetix website explore this topic in more detail.

If the tagged content is open access, it becomes part of the public part of that #2030library.

As long as there will be social media platforms and search engines supporting hashtags, you, your favourite authors, your students, your teachers and your peers can use coding hashtags to share, discover and retrieve content.


1.1 Making the world of knowledge small for everyone

The “small-world” argument in social network theory emphasizes that people are, on average, only a few connections away from the information they seek.

Singh et al. (2000) in their paper “The world is not small for everyone: Inequity in searching for knowledge in organizations” contrast the “small world” argument with empirical support for the argument that the network structure does not benefit everyone.

For people who have longer search paths in locating knowledge in an organization and in the internet, the world is large.

The drivers for inequality in the access to knowledge include the mechanisms periphery status and homophily, “love of the same”, the tendency of individuals to associate and bond with similar others.

The tools for looking up coding hashtags and the systematized hashtags covering all topics in a topic-dimension (see chapter 3) encourage heterophilous awareness in search. By leveraging internet and wiki services, it will take only a few seconds for finding the coding hashtag for a specific topic in a topic-dimension.

Together, the coding hashtags, the wikis and public content have this purpose: leverage the internet and social media for making the world of knowledge smaller for all members of society.

This is why the systematized content to which this e-book refers are offered without a pay wall. Your contribution for this e-book, enables its author(s) and other volunteers to expand and provide for free a growing collection of systematized content. Together we can demonstrate that #tagcoding of content and the creation of mutually linked wikis are pillars for development and that it lowers the access hurdles for knowledge that matters to people’s livelihood.


1.2 A first engagement step: #tagcoding

The common search engines and many social platforms support coding hashtags, yet for most social media platforms the use of hashtags is an “intra-platform” feature. For Twitter, in spite of the recent discontinuation of hashtag based timelines, search for hashtags is open also to non-subscribers via Twitter Search.

On the social platforms anyone can label content with a tagcoding hashtag for the topic in the country to make it part of a domestic discourse which is globally visible.

This makes the discourse on the topic inclusive. Everyone (on the platform) can contribute, without a need to join a specific group or community, or without a need to be “rich or famous” for the contribution to be noticed.

Whereas social media gives you a means to communicate with your social network, the coding hashtags allow you to target a discourse rather than the public in general or your own network. If a discourse progresses at a slow pace, older posts can easily be retrieved and the hashtag helps retrieving posts over a longer period of time.

By having hashtags for finegrained topics, the expected posting intensity per hashtag decreases, and a much better match is possible between content supply and demand. Consider authors or researchers in a community that has adopted #tagcoding. A topic with many posts would indicate an over-supply of content - many authors writing similar stuff, or researchers doing similar research -, while a topic with no posts would indicate neglect of the topic. By #tagcoding their production and search of prior work, the authors and researchers can better allocate their time so that all topics in a topic-dimension receive the appropriate attention.

Bringing a #tagcoding capability to any country’s institutions and millions of citizens using many languages is a major challenge.

Language-neutral hashtags cover every sustainable development goal or target, every function of government, every economic activity and every locality. There is a coding hashtag for everyone’s livelihood or public service needs. #tagcoded content is like a word in a dictionary: it will be found when looked up. Moreover, all tagged content merges into a focussed discourse stream, including one for every local government unit. Everyone can have a voice in this stream. Because of their combinatory character tags can be very specialised or rather general. They can be configured to the level of scope where the public-private discourse occurs to forge the required trust between institutions, business and citizens.


1.3 A second engagement step: #tag2wiki

Once hashtags are adopted at scale in a country, an exhaustive hashtag search is likely to have a limited horizon in the past. Therefore it is recommended to curate the contents of tagged posts that contribute original quality content on the corresponding wiki pages in the wiki-net with aligned wiki-pages in each language of the country.


1.4 A third engagement step: #lean2book

This #tagcoding handbook uses hyperlinks and hashtags to extend the book’s storyline with content that is on the internet, in wikis, and on social platforms. Consider that the reading device for the e-book is likely to have access to the internet.

The content that is referenced may have different access regimes. Content in the public domain is referred to as public content and is available to all under the same access regime, this is for free and with no restrictions to reuse. Content that is protected by copyright or other rights regimes, much of it will be in books, cannot be reused without approval by the copyright holder.

Using hyperlinks in e-books such as those published via Leanpub has several advantages:

  • The author can avoid to reword and repackage existing content, and can build upon others’ work in a direct and transparent manner; the author can focus on the original contributions;
  • Content that is in the internet could evolve and improve between the point in time when the e-book was first produced, and the point in time that one is reading it, making use of the hyperlink;
  • Where the hyperlinked content is in wikis or blogs that support discussion or comments, readers can give comments, to further improve the state of knowledge in the area of concern;
  • Authors can harvest the #tagcoded discourse to periodically update their topical book.

Systematized public content, for instance in wikis that are maintained via a #tag2wiki curation approach, draw the attention of authors and readers to the possibility of reusing or referencing such content in their work. By using and expanding the systematized public content, its quality and utility will gradually improve, especially also in languages in which there is little online content.

Using #tagcoding as a means to promote and follow-up a discussion topic has also several advantages, including:

  • Everyone (with a platform profile that allows tagged posts) is empowered to contribute to the discussion, meaning that the discussion is inclusive;
  • When systematically defined hashtags are used, content about very specific topics can be easily retrieved, for instance, marine aquaculture in Indonesia has coding hashtag #isic0312ID;
  • The use of #tagcoding by authors and readers supports collaborative scoping and avoids information overload;
  • Each coding hashtag supports a “single-version-of-the-truth” “search” for the discourse on the searched platform, at any point in time, and across languages.

Tagcoded discourse supports authors and readers in updating their knowledge about a specific topic. Also the systematized public content can easily be updated and expanded, as they are realized as wikis.

The expectation of improved content quality gives a reason for later returns to specific “content” via #tagcoding searches, both to the discourse, the wiki pages and the e-books.

If there is “public content” wiki for each language (used in a country), maintained by curators who modify and extend it on the basis of #tagcoded posts, then this is an important asset for authors and readers alike.

While #tagcoding and #tag2wiki are collaborative journeys, the authoring of e-books is a more individual journey.


1.5 #tagcoding Code of Conduct

By #tagcoding we can fight information overload, avoid over-researched topics, and make the world of knowledge small for everyone. The success in this global journey also depends on adhering to certain principles in dealing with content that others have created, and when contributing your own content.

It is rather meaningless to discover content via a coding hashtag, then copy or repeat it, and post it with the same or a neighbouring hashtag (e.g. a different country code). Your content is likely to appear in the same search result as the copied content.

Rather if you wish to strengthen the original author’s message, retweet or repost it, or like, favorite, +1 it.

By #tagcoding a new work, the author expresses confidence his or her content is not infringing the copyright of others, or is not just repeating what is already readily available (online).

Avoid spam or aggressive, commercial push of content

A common (social) media practice to reach a larger audience is to repeat the same post regularly or at many places.

For instance in Twitter, some post the same content weekly, daily or more frequently. In LinkedIn or Facebook we may post the same content in multiple groups, in Google+ in multiple communities, etc. #tagcoding in a public platform makes such multiple posting unnecessary to reach your target audience (on the condition #tagcoding conventions have been adopted).

By using coding hashtags, the author or publisher opts out of spamming-like, excess content-push attitudes addressing readers. He or she posts once, and next let the readers discover the content, via the content’s hashtags, when they need it. This is called “on-demand”.

Contribute to an inclusive discourse

A discourse has questions and answers. Authors tend to use the print and social media to share their answers, even without questions being asked.

Where can people express their burning questions?

People working in an “under-served” economic activity can add fitting coding hashtags to their question. A question can become prominent as it is liked by others, or acknowledged by an expert. And when a person able to answer comes across a prominent question, he or she can be sure that the #tagcoded answer will be appreciated.

The hurdles to joining the discourse are much less on a “open social platform” than in a closed group of app users, or in a closed platform.

By #tagcoding questions they become part of an inclusive discourse, in addition to answers and arguments.


1.6 Global adoption of coding hashtags

Some coding hashtags have been “organically” adopted at a global scale. This is the case for the hashtags for the sustainable development goals: #sdg1, #sdg2 to #sdg17. For these hashtags, on Twitter, over a hundred of shared posts a day, or even per hour, are not uncommon. If you have an interest in a specific topic, say fighting poverty in the Philippines, the #sdg1 hashtag won’t help you much. In contrast if all #sdg1 tagged posts about fighting poverty in the Philippines would also carry #sdg01PH, there would be far fewer posts each day, and the simple search of the hashtags gives you right away what you are looking for.

Also, some people have intuitively used #sdgKE for sharing content on sustainable development in Kenya.

Since early 2018 some knowledge institutions are using hashtags for some of the sustainable development targets, for instance:

  • “#SDT1714 - enhance policy coherence for sustainable development;”
  • “#SDT123 - by 2030 halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level, and reduce food losses along production;”
  • “#SDT61 or #SDT061 - by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all;”
  • “#SDT055 or #SDT55 - ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making.”

In spite of their power for retrieving content, structured hashtags do not easily spread organically. That’s why I urge you to promote them actively, both with questions and answers, especially also for domestic and local use.

Note that for the alphabetic part of the hashtag, no distinction is made between upper case and lower case characters. Also you cannot include non-alphanumeric characters except the underscore “_”. In longer multi-word hashtags it is common to capitalize the first character of each word, such as in #MeToo or #AddisAbabaActionAgenda.


1.7 Overview

In the next chapter, as a background for appreciating the benefits of collaborative #tagcoding and wiki creation, we briefly describe some pivotal points in the history of the creation of knowledge and making it accessible.

From the third edition onwards, responding to the vision of a platform for collective intelligence described in chapter 2.6, a more elaborate description of the #tagcoding and #tag2wiki theory of change is provided in chapter 2.10 Capacity for the 2030 Agenda. This …

The third chapter presents a number of online tools that I have created in order to simplify finding the coding hashtag for a specific topic. When I am reading articles and post on the internet, I use these tools to look up the hashtags that I will add in the comment when reposting (usually retweeting). With these hashtags I can retrieve posts even years after I posted them. So why my memory of a post may be vague or gone, by looking up a topics hashtagcode, I can give a concrete answer in seconds.

Each of the following five chapters introduces the coding hashtags for a specific topic dimension.

The fourth chapter presents the tagcoding hashtags for the sustainable development goals and targets, and the tools created for looking up these hashtags. Annex 5 lists all goals and targets and includes a hyperlink to an online description for each goal.

The fifth chapter presents the tagcoding hashtags for the classes and divisions of the Classification Of the Functions Of Government (COFOG), and the tools for looking them up. Annex 2 lists all classes and divisions and includes a hyperlink to an online description for each Division.

Chapter six presents the sections and some of the classes of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC revision 4), and the tools for looking them up. Annex 3 lists all sections and classes and includes a hyperlink to an online description for each of section

Chapter seven presents the world wide local government unit “#WWlgu” hashtags and illustrates them for a few countries. Annex 1 lists all countries and territories of the world, each with its ISO country code and their generic coding hashtags for each dimension covered in this handbook: #sdg, #cofog, #isic and #lgu.

Chapter eight presents the tagcoding hashtags for the sections, divisions, groups and classes of the Central Product Classification. Annex 4 lists all sections, divisions and groups as well as a few classes. It includes a hyperlink to an online description for each of section.


1.8 The #Tagcoding Handbook: an essential e-book?

In its electronic version, this #tagcoding handbook will be a companion for an important episode that will change how you use the internet.

It provides #tagcoding conventions for a globally shared multi-dimensional topic map with over a hundred thousand topics that matter for development, personal, public, and socio-economic. Codes for sustainable development goals, economic activities, functions of government, can be combined with the codes countries and local government units so as to form hashtags for specific topics such as fighting poverty in a country, state, district, county or municipality. In fact, depending on the specific interest of the users, a unique tag out of billions can be created to support their knowledge sharing.

In a sense we propose a coordinatization of the topic space, which is similar to the Cartesian coordinate geometry for space and time that we are already familiar with. In the topic space, the topic dimensions are sustainable development goals, economic activities, functions of government and territorial locality. The coordinatization of the topic space brings a superior expressive adequacy and computational efficiency in the social sharing and the knowledge localization.

Search in this handbook may be a first step in a broader engagement with systematized content that already includes tens of thousands of wikipages (less than 800 of which are referenced in the annexes of this handbook), or when you feel like sharing a good read, bright idea, or when you need high quality or recent content or discourse on a sustainable development goal or target, a city, a municipality, a sector of industry or a function of government in a country.

After the first edition of this book was published I have looked into ways to provide a substantial part of the information via online #tagcoding pivots.

Generic and country-specific #tagcoding pivots can also be consulted via the internet and are currently available in 10 languages as explained and illustrated in chapter 3.4.

In addition to the #tagcoding pivots some other online tools have been defined to support the quick and easy discovery of the coding hashtag for a specific topic. Consult #tagcoding guidelines for more information about these tools and additional #tagcoding conventions.


2. Pivotal points in the history of knowledge creation

In the history of recording knowledge and making it accessible there are a number of pivotal points (Perkowitz, 2016) such as the creation of libraries, the invention of the printing press, the encyclopedia developed by Denis Diderot and Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, the creation of classification structures, and the creation of the Internet.

Collaborative #tagcoding and wiki-creation and their broad adoption are likely another pivotal point that enables and furthers a far more inclusive and instructive use of the internet, and a faster localization of knowledge.

As yet the mainstream use of the internet is still distractive, consumptive and commercial.

As a general purpose counter-measure for the information overload and bias of that mainstream internet, the proposed #tagcoding - #tag2wiki - #lean2book business model will transform and accelerate the instructive and productive use of the internet.

In this chapter we briefly describe earlier pivotal points as a background for appreciating the origin and benefits of our mission.

2.1 Encyclopedia

The aim of the “Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers” (1751-1772) was to change the way people think, and for people to be able to inform themselves and to know things. Denis Diderot, its editor, wanted to incorporate all of the world’s knowledge and hoped that the text and the engravings could disseminate all this information to the public and to future generations (Isaac Kramnick, 1995).

In the figure below we give some key characteristics and figures about the first multi-contributor encyclopedia.

The encyclopedia used a taxonomy of human knowledge with three main branches: memory, reason and imagination.

Check Wikipedia for more details about how it was created and what impact it had on culture and society.

The first encyclopedia
The first encyclopedia

The simplified model of the first encyclopedia, and all other models in this book are made using the model elements of the Archimate Framework (The Open Group, 2017) in the Archi tool.


2.2 Mundaneum

The Mundaneum was created in 1910 by the Belgian lawyers Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine and aimed to gather all the world’s knowledge and classify it according to a Universal Decimal Classification.

In Traité de documentation (1934) Paul Otlet presented a novel scheme for remote access to data with minimal use of hard copy. Paul Otlet envisioned many of the features of the internet in order to make the “universal compilation of knowledge” that had started in the Mundaneum widely accessible via a communications network the radiated library and the televised book.

In the figure below we give some key characteristics and figures about the Mundaneum and Otlet’s scheme for remote access to the compilation of knowledge.

The Mundaneum and Otlet's scheme for remote access
The Mundaneum and Otlet’s scheme for remote access

Both the encyclopedia and the Mundaneum were forerunners of other systematic knowledge projects such as Wikipedia and WolframAlpha.

The scheme for remote access to data that Otlet presented, but didn’t implement, was a forerunner of the Internet.

Wikipedia contains much more information about the Mundaneum and its creators.

Alex Wright (2014) also pays attention to the global political and socio-economic context of the era and how Otlet interacted with it.


2.3 Internet

Today, the internet and search engines offer a communications solution that makes content globally accessible. In contrast with the centralized Mundaneum information classified by experts, today’s Web has a “bottom-up” and widely sourced flood of data.

This makes the huge pile of online content and data unwieldy and unorganized.

In the figure below we model some key components of the internet eco-system, and in the purple boxes position some user-related assessments:

  • it is difficult for many users to extract the information they need for particular work contexts;
  • it is hard for authors to reach the audience that would benefit from the content and knowledge they contribute.
Key components of the internet
Key components of the internet

While the wide and bottom-up sourcing of content and the availability of search engines would generally benefit the access to and localization of knowledge, the user- and author-related factors apparently slow down such virtuous effects of the Internet.


2.4 Wiki based encyclopedias and micro blogs

Both wiki-based encyclopedias and micro blogs are among the best services the internet eco-system offers for the localization of knowledge.

Wiki encyclopedia and micro blogs
Wiki encyclopedia and micro blogs

In the previous figure we model some key components of the wiki-encyclopedia and micro-blog eco-system. The purple boxes position some assessments regarding their services:

  • In a wiki-encyclopedia, quality content is sourced widely, subjected to quality controls, and organized systematically;
  • Micro-blogs, with Twitter in particular, support search and curation on the basis of hashtags which are especially used for trending topics.

2.5 Collaborative #tagcoding and wiki editing

The #tagcoding capability builds upon topic dimensions to realise a number of goals that leverage wiki and micro blog services to accelerate the localization of knowledge:

  • Define topic hashtags systematically for end-user topic dimensions (mono-dimensional), for instance #isic9101 for library and archive activities, and FJ, the ISO country code for Fiji;
  • Create hashtags for multi-dimensional topics by combining (juxtaposing) mono-dimensional topic codes, for instance combine #isic9101 with FJ to form #isic9101FJ for library and archive activities in Fiji;
  • Ensure local-language wiki (-encyclopedia) coverage for all topics in key end-user topic dimensions (with a focus on topics that matter for a community), for instance “all economic activities”, “all functions of government”, “all local government units”, and “all targets of the sustainable development goals”.
  • Provide tools to look up a specific #tagcoding hashtag in a topic dimension.

In the figure below we position the key #tagcoding components with respect to those of the familiar internet eco-system.

Collaborative hashtagcoding and topic dimensions
Collaborative hashtagcoding and topic dimensions

The Actor Atlas started with:

  • A wiki page for each economic activity as defined in the International Standard Industrial Classifications of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Rev.4 (UN Statistics Division, 2008);
  • A wiki page for each function of government as defined in Classification of Functions of government (UN Statistics Division, 2000)
  • An initiative book page for each country, with “placeholders” for initiatives for each function of government in the country.

Later on, the coding hashtags and the pages with goals and targets of the sustainable development goals were added to the Actor Atlas, and country-specific wikis were created by cloning a template wiki.

Content of the #isic9101 wiki page
Content of the #isic9101 wiki page

For each economic activity that matters to a community, a number of general facts, links to resources, and questions about improving it are included. For instance for #isic9101 - Library and archives activities some part of the content is displayed in the screenshot on the previous page.


2.6 A Platform for Collective Intelligence

In a recent blog post Geoff Mulgan (2018) discusses how collective intelligence can support achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (and How the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) could become more like a platform). In the figure below we have summarized some of the key points from the post.

While all the proposed processes and capabilities have their specific challenges, we conjecture that collaborative #tagcoding and wiki-editing would facilitate the communications among all stakeholders, and would free much time for the substantial action that is most needed.

A platform for collective intelligence
A platform for collective intelligence

2.7 #Tagcoding, #tag2wiki, #lean2book - the business model

Within the broader platform for collective intelligence that was proposed in the previous section, this handbook’s focus is on the process “curation of a transparent and open body of data, some local, some regional and some national” and how it is facilitated by:

  • #tagcoding, the use of standardized hashtags to relate online information to specific topics in order to structure it and retrieve it easily;
  • #tag2wiki for local languages the joint creation, maintenance, and coordination of wikis for development communications in the local languages of a country.

The #lean2book process about authoring and publishing e-books that leverage #tagcoding and #tag2wiki wikis is not addressed in the figure.

Together, #tagcoding and #tag2wiki are important digital skills for accelerating both the production of curated knowledge in support of knowledge localization as envisioned by Joseph Stiglitz (2000) and the provision of a platform for collective intelligence.

hashtagcoding and tag2wiki explained
hashtagcoding and tag2wiki explained

2.8 Leading in the age of digital interdependence

In 2018, the UN Secretary-General António Guterres launched the High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation. Its purpose was to advance proposals to strengthen cooperation in the digital space among Governments, the private sector, civil society, international organizations, academia, the technical community and other relevant stakeholders.

On June 10, 2019 the Panel released its report The age of digital interdependence. The assessment of the current situation, the gaps, the vision and the recommendations are summarized in the figure below.

Digital cooperation: Drivers, risks, gaps, vision and recommendations
Digital cooperation: Drivers, risks, gaps, vision and recommendations

Collaborative #tagcoding and #tag2wiki are especially related to the recommendations “#DC1b - Create alliances for sharing “digital public goods” and “#DC1c - Adopt policies to support digital inclusion and equality for women and marginalised groups” which are part of the recommendation on building an inclusive digital economy and society.

Digital cooperation: Building an Inclusive Economy and Society
Digital cooperation: Building an Inclusive Economy and Society

2.9 #Tagcoding and decision making journeys: policy

In an inclusive culture, the leadership gives each individual personal attention and room to contribute, ask, learn and develop.

How would coding hashtags affect a country’s democratic decision making?

When a country’s parliament committee, an executive, or a local government unit puts a topic on their agenda, this event deserves a post that is tagged suitably, or a news article sharing the related hashtagcode. Stakeholders in the debate follow-up a tag’s timeline and can contribute their views “in the open” by #tagcoding their posts or by “liking” what others contributed (see also E-Parliament tagger, elaborated during a European hackathon in Brussels, early 2014).

Authors and public communicators only need a simple search for a #tagcoding hashtag to assess a debate’s coverage or neglect. When readers observe neglect, the coding hashtags empowers them to ask questions, “like” prior questions or answers, or contribute content to fill content gaps.

Where the topic is a lengthy proposed act, it is an option to use a single hashtag and wiki page for each article of the text, both before and after its enactment. This is illustrated for the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 in the screenshot on the next page.

At the base of the digital pyramid consider farmers in a developing country using a tablet on a time-share basis, paying access to internet per minute, with low bandwidth. This model has been implemented by “info ladies” biking to remote Bangladeshi villages since 2008 (Julien Bouissou, 2013). Once the #tagcoding and #tag2wiki business model has been adopted, and when a wiki in the local language is available, the farmers in remote villages could use the coding hashtags to quickly access content that matters to their livelihood. With the hashtags they can find recent, relevant and popular content in seconds. A short period of using a tablet will allow them to find answers, or to contribute to a topic or post their questions.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, with a hashtag for each article
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, with a hashtag for each article

Using the contemporary internet and social media, the collaborative #tagcoding is a small step that would nurture and enable a radically more inclusive public-private discourse and localization of knowledge. Both the discourse and the access to knowledge are key characteristics of a civilized and open society, in all countries.

2.10 #Tagcoding and decision making journeys: Do-Check-Plan-Act

As knowledge creation is a general purpose need, the journeys that will be affected by #tagcoding are countless. The Actor Atlas page on multi-level social architecture proposes four kinds of journeys that are related to the level of scope of the knowledge creation and the decision making:

  • pico journeys of households and individual persons;
  • micro journeys of businesses and organizations;
  • meso journeys of sectors of the economy;
  • macro journeys of governance bodies with a local, over national to international extent.

The model below briefly clarifies the scope and the agency in each kind of journey.

Journeys in a multi-level social architecture
Journeys in a multi-level social architecture

Depending on the socio-technical level the scope of the work-system of an actor will vary. Yet each work-system, whether on the macro, meso, micro, or pico level, has operations in the “DO” stage. It’s value adding feature is reflected in the yellow colour. Improvements of the work-system, for instance higher profits, smaller phone bills, better education, are typically achieved in “Check-Plan-Act” cycle, the so-called roundabout work capability. In these roundabout activities, knowledge sourcing from the “Peer knowledge system” is all important. The “air-like” feature of knowledge is reflected in the blue colour of the Peer knowledge system.

Coding hashtags matching "DO" needs (#?) to peer knowledge (#!)
Coding hashtags matching “DO” needs (#?) to peer knowledge (#!)

Relying on the available internet and social media platforms, the #tagcoding conventions proposed in this e-book establish at once communication channels between on the one hand, the global peer knowledge system usually providing answers (#!), and on the other hand, work systems in all economic activities, all functions of government, and for all products of the contemporary global economy, usually having questions (#?).

The sustainable development goals and targets would typically be part of the “02 - Partner Specific reference model”, with measurements for indicators clarifying the seize of problems.

Further details about how #tagcoding and #tag2wiki contribute to Capacity for the 2030 Agenda is provided at some pages of the Wikiworx Academy wiki.


2.11 Knowledge localization in more languages

In the previous section we argued that a platform for knowledge localization must use the local languages of a country.

While this e-book and the wikis referenced in it are written in English, the provision of systematized content via wikis, the #tag2wiki curation of content, and the lean authoring of e-books (#lean2book) must be performed in many more languages. It is a necessity if we want broad-based knowledge localization.

We must bridge the digital and knowledge divide that currently exists for many people who don’t master English or another major international language. Check the Local Content Accelerator - #DA2I for more ideas on and possible approaches to accelerate the provision of content in many more languages, and by doing so, contributing to poverty reduction and sustainable development impacts.

Wikinetix makes available wiki-templates for cloning in the context of specific country-wide or stakeholder-specific wiki editing:

The pillars of National Follow Up and Review processes are depicted in the figure below.

The pillars of National Follow Up and Review processes (NFUR)
The pillars of National Follow Up and Review processes (NFUR)

3. Tools for looking up tagcoding hashtags

In the early days of #tagcoding I used Twitter on a tablet and would look up an #isic code using a printed list, as that would be faster than scrolling through an electronic document. This I did until I created on a wiki page a tabbed table for the ISIC classes. Since then the tagcoding cycle usually has these steps:

  1. In Twitter, I read and assess the post, is it worth to be retrieved later on?
  2. If yes (and I don’t know the code by heart), I switch screens to my browser to go to the #tagcoding pivot page.
  3. On the basis of the topic dimension, I look up the corresponding ISIC class - often this is straightforward, but in some cases one has to look up the class definition, for instance for bee-keeping, or for copper mining.
  4. I remember the code and return to Twitter, where I quote, or add a comment including the coding hashtag
  5. I finish the comment and tweet the #tagcoded post.

There are a few tricks in this cycle: when holding a link on a web page, Chrome supports actions such as: Open in new tab, Open in incognito tab, Copy link address, Copy link text, Download link, Share link.

I would often copy the link text and the link address, in two successive visits to the web browser, and then paste them in the comment on Twitter. When the link text includes both the code hashtag and its meaning this allows me to “advocate” for #tagcoding. The wiki provision is that a page must have a title that includes the coding hashtag. This is usually the case as you may have noticed in many screenshots.

If a broader search is needed, I would search on the wiki, or use the tagcloud that the wiki produces on the basis of the page tags.

While practicing the #tagcoding, over the past years, I have looked into ways to provide online tools to quickly look up a specific coding hashtag in a topic dimension.

Unlike common search tools, when the user searches a topic dimension, several tools explicitly show the range of topics covered in the dimension. This encourages heterophilous awareness and search behaviours.

Consult #tagcoding guidelines for these tools and some further #tagcoding conventions.

3.1 Tabbed table

A tabbed table with “top” tabs is convenient to order topics in a two level hierarchy with between ten to twenty topics at the highest level in the hierarchy, and between two and hunderd topics per top-level topic.

In the figure below four tabbed tables are briefly described:

  • a table with country codes, alphabetically per continent;
  • the function of government table with about 120 classes in 10 divisions;
  • a table with the sustainable development goals (17) and targets (169);
  • a table with the economic activities with about 420 classes in 21 sections.
Topic dimensions covered by tabbed tables
Topic dimensions covered by tabbed tables

There is an example of each of these tables in the chapter dealing with the topic dimension.

The benefit of showing these tables is that they give the user an humbling awareness of the total topic space that is covered by the topic dimension. They also encourage an heterophilous awareness.

The screenshot below shows the front or guide page of the tabbed table for ISIC. The sections allow to limit the search space for the classes. Manufacturing is the section with most classes.

Front page of the isic tabbed table
Front page of the isic tabbed table

A #tagcoding pivot will include several tabbed tables. In order to fit several tables on single screen of a smart phone, the landing view of a #tagcoding pivot will only show the tabs of a tabbed table and its title. This view of a tabbed table is called its landing view.

The landing view of the ISIC tabbed table
The landing view of the ISIC tabbed table

The next image shows on the left hand side part of the landing view of the #tagcoding pivot which includes four tabbed tables: the first one for the sustainable development goals, the second for economic activities, the third for the functions of government, and the fourth for the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. On the left hand side the ISIC classes in Section E are shown with their #tagcoding hashtag.

The landing view a #tagcoding pivot and a section view on a mobile phone
The landing view a #tagcoding pivot and a section view on a mobile phone

3.2 Topic-#tag cloud

A topic-#tag cloud is convenient in situations where the hierachy of the topics cannot be derived from the topic name and where there is a unique #tag for the topic. This is for instance the case for local government units, the name of which gives no indication of their country or state. In a topic-#tag cloud each term consists of a topic name, followed by a hashtag. In the cloud the terms are ordered alphabetically. It takes only a few seconds to look up the coding hashtag for the topic, even in clouds with thousands of terms.

Topic dimensions with topic-hashtag clouds
Topic dimensions with topic-hashtag clouds

For links to these clouds we refer to the chapter on the local government unit coding hashtags. The tag clouds are produced from the tags of the wiki pages in a certain category.

Also in this case showing the total cloud gives a humbling awareness to the user.

The picture below shows the screenshot of part of the topic-#tag cloud for the major lgus worldwide.

Part of a local government unit topic-hashtag cloud
Part of a local government unit topic-hashtag cloud

3.3 Term cloud

A term cloud is convenient in situations where a topic includes several sub-topics that matter individually. For instance keywords of functions of government or economic activities, and keywords in the sustainable development targets. As the terms are ordered alphabetically it takes only a few seconds to look up a specific term. By looking up a term, the list of pages is produced that are tagged with the term. When the coding hashtag is included in the title of the page it is immediately clear which topics in the topic dimension include the term.

Topic dimensions covered by a term cloud
Topic dimensions covered by a term cloud

The picture below shows the screenshot of part of the term cloud for the sustainable development targets.

Part of the term cloud for the sustainable development targets
Part of the term cloud for the sustainable development targets

The picture below shows the list of targets with the term “Biodiversity”. In the category of “sdt:” wiki pages we have taken care to always include the coding hashtag in front of the targets title.

Pages from a category (topic-dimension) tagged with a term
Pages from a category (topic-dimension) tagged with a term

3.4 #Tagcoding pivot pages

Wiki pages with multiple tabbed tables can be set to simultaneously show the coding hashtags for a broad topic such as education or health in multiple topic dimensions. Such a wiki page is called a pivot page.

When putting tabbed tables with respectively 17, 21 and 10 top level topics on a single wiki page, that page can have 3570 different views showing topic descriptions and their coding hashtags.

The screenshot on the next page shows the education #tags in the dimensions of goals, economic activities and functions of government.

Pivot pages in other languages support an immediate production of similar views:

The education view of the pivot page in Arabic concludes this chapter:

The education view of a #tagcoding pivot page
The education view of a #tagcoding pivot page
The education view of the Arabic pivot page
The education view of the Arabic pivot page

3.5 #Tagcoding pivot pages per country

The #tagcoding pivot pages per country have been designed in accordance with the topic dimensions and layers of government services as explained in the figure below.

Topic dimensions and layers of government services in #tagcoding pivots per country
Topic dimensions and layers of government services in #tagcoding pivots per country

In this view the functions of government have been divided in three layers, with “actors” on lower layers responsible and accountable for protecting and supporting the well-being of actors on higher layers (carrying capacity):

  • (Government) services for the people which include the divisions: 09 - Education; 07 - Health; 08 - Recreation, culture & religion; and 10 - Social protection.
  • Services for the economy, environment and community which include the divisions: 04 - Economic Affairs; 05 - Environmental Protection; and 06 - Housing and Community Amenities.
  • Governance, justice and society’s foundations which include the divisions: 01 - General Public Services; 02 - Defence; and 03 - Public Order and Safety.

The screenshot below shows the landing view of the #tagcoding pivot for the United States of America.

Tagcoding pivot for the United States of America
Tagcoding pivot for the United States of America

The first annex includes a link to a similar english page for each of over 190 countries. For all these countries, a similar #tagcoding pivot page is available in the other official languages of the United Nations. Each such page supports 14256 views on interrelated topics.


4. Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable development goals which were approved by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015 are usually abbreviated as SDGs, with hashtag #SDGs. The full definition of each of the 17 goals and 169 targets can be found in the UN resolution document Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN General Assembly, 2015).

The goals with their ‘global’ #SDGs coding hashtag are listed in table SDGs. Each goal has a number of targets. For each target an #sdt coding hashtag is defined.

The fifth annex lists the targets and #sdt coding hashtags for each sustainable development goal. For each goal it also includes a link to a wiki page that lists the functions of government and the economic activities that matter most in achieving the goal.

SDG tag goal description
#SDG1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere
#SDG2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
#SDG3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
#SDG4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
#SDG5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
#SDG6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
#SDG7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
#SDG8 Promote sustained, inclusive & sustainable economic growth, full & productive employment & decent work for all
#SDG9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
#SDG10 Reduce inequality within and among countries
#SDG11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
#SDG12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
#SDG13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
#SDG14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
#SDG15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
#SDG16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
#SDG17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

4.1 Tools for looking up goal and target hashtags

A tabbed table is available in ten languages. The front page of each table is a list of the goals and a guide to the tabs.

Each other tab includes a goal and its targets.

The targets of Sustainable Development Goal 7
The targets of Sustainable Development Goal 7
The front page of the tabbed table for the Sustainable Development Goals and Targets
The front page of the tabbed table for the Sustainable Development Goals and Targets

The Actor Atlas also provides an alphabetic keyword cloud for the sustainable development targets in English, French and Spanish.

Selection of a keyword lists the targets for the keyword. Each target (short) phrase is preceded by its SDT hashtag as was illustrated in Chapter 3.3.

The country #tagcoding guides list the localized hashtags for each goal and target in a country, for instance #SDG7 in India:

Coding hashtags for Goal 7 and its targets in India
Coding hashtags for Goal 7 and its targets in India

4.2 SDG1 - End poverty in all its forms everywhere

The sustainable development goal SDG1 - End poverty in all its forms everywhere contains the targets in the below table. For each target there is a unique coding hashtag such as #sdt011, yet also hashtags such as #sdt11 may be used.

SDT tag target description
#SDT011 or #SDT11 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1
#SDT012 or #SDT12 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
#SDT013 or #SDT13 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
#SDT014 or #SDT14 By 2030 ensure that all men and women, particularly the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership, and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology, and financial services including microfinance
#SDT015 or #SDT15 By 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
#SDT01a or #SDT1a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular LDCs, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
#SDT01b or #SDT1b Create sound policy frameworks, at national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies to support accelerated investments in poverty eradication actions

The tag for the goal in a country is constructed by adding the ISO country code to the tag for a goal or a target. For instance for goal End poverty in all its forms everywhere (#SDG1 ) and target implementing nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieving substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable (#sdt013) in each of the countries below:

Coding hashtags for the sustainable development target implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable in selected countries
Country ISO code #SDG1 hashtag #sdt013 hashtag
Australia AU #sdg1AU #sdt013AU
Botswana BW #sdg1BW #sdt013BW
Cameroon CM #sdg1CM #sdt013CM
Canada CA #sdg1CA #sdt013CA
The Gambia GM #sdg1GM #sdt013GM
Ghana GH #sdg1GH #sdt013GH
Guyana GY #sdg1GY #sdt013GY
India IN #sdg1IN #sdt013IN
Ireland IE #sdg1IE #sdt013IE
Jamaica JM #sdg1JM #sdt013JM
Jordan JO #sdg1JO #sdt013JO
Kenya KE #sdg1KE #sdt013KE
Liberia LR #sdg1LR #sdt013LR
Malawi MW #sdg1MW #sdt013MW
Mauritius MU #sdg1MU #sdt013MU
New Zealand NZ #sdg1NZ #sdt013NZ
Nigeria NG #sdg1NG #sdt013NG
Pakistan PK #sdg1PK #sdt013PK
Papua New Guinea PG #sdg1PG #sdt013PG
Philippines PH #sdg1PH #sdt013PH
Rwanda RW #sdg1RW #sdt013RW
Sierra Leone SL #sdg1SL #sdt013SL
Singapore SG #sdg1SG #sdt013SG
South Africa ZA #sdg1ZA #sdt013ZA
South Sudan SS #sdg1SS #sdt013SS
Sudan SD #sdg1SD #sdt013SD
Swaziland SZ #sdg1SZ #sdt013SZ
Tanzania TZ #sdg1TZ #sdt013TZ
Uganda UG #sdg1UG #sdt013UG
United Kingdom GB #sdg1GB #sdt013GB
United States of America US #sdg1US #sdt013US
Zimbabwe ZW #sdg1ZW #sdt013ZW

5. Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG)

COFOG is the abbreviation of Classification of the Functions of Government. The full structure and definition of each of the over 100 classes can be found in a publication of the United Nations Statistics Division: Classifications of Expenditure According to Purpose: Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG); Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose (COICOP); Classification of the Purposes of Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households (COPNI); Classification of the Outlays of Producers According to Purpose (COPP) at the website of the United Nations Statistics Division. The COFOG section and class definitions have also been added to the pages defining the cofogWW hashtags which are a part of the Ens Dictionary.

The classification contains the sections in the table below. Each section includes a number of classes. In the COFOG class names, four abbreviations are frequently used: CS, IS, R&D and n.e.c. CS means collective services, IS means individual services, R&D means Research and Development and n.e.c. means not elsewhere classified.

cofog #tag COFOG Section
#cofog01 General Public Services
#cofog02 Defence
#cofog03 Public Order and Safety
#cofog04 Economic Affairs
#cofog05 Environmental Protection
#cofog06 Housing and Community Amenities
#cofog07 Health
#cofog08 Recreation, Culture and Religion
#cofog09 Education
#cofog10 Social Protection

The second annex lists the classes for each of the COFOG divisions, with for each division a link to its description in the Ens Dictionary. The Ens dictionary also includes the full definition of each COFOG class. * * *

5.1 Tools for looking up cofog hashtags

For the cofog hashtags two tools are provided: tabbed tables in several languages and a term cloud in English.

The tagcoding pivot page of the Actor Atlas lists the COFOG classes per division in a tabbed table.

The COFOG divisions on the front page of the tabbed table
The COFOG divisions on the front page of the tabbed table

The Actor Atlas also has a English tagcloud for the functions of government.

The country #tagcoding guides list the hashtags for each function of government, for instance for education in Nepal:

Education in Nepal - the cofog hashtags
Education in Nepal - the cofog hashtags

The localised hashtag for the Education division in COFOG is #NP09fg, and for the education section in ISIC it is #NP88P. These two hashtags break with the “tradition” of having the country code after the topic tag. The reason is that alphanumeric tags are preferred. For the cofog divisions, a tag such as #cofog01NP would be possible, but for the ISIC sections, #isicPNP is a pure alphabetic sequence and therefore hasn’t been selected. To separate the Section upper case letter from the country code, we have chosen 88, the number that symbolizes fortune and good luck in Chinese culture.


5.2 COFOG 01 - General Public Services

The COFOG section 01 - General Public Services contains the classes in the below table.

cofog #tag Class name
#cofog0111 Executive and legislative organs (CS)
#cofog0112 Financial and fiscal affairs (CS)
#cofog0113 External affairs (CS)
#cofog0121 Economic aid to developing countries and countries in transition (CS)
#cofog0122 Economic aid routed through international organizations (CS)
#cofog0131 General personnel services (CS)
#cofog0132 Overall planning and statistical services (CS)
#cofog0133 Other general services (CS)
#cofog0140 Basic research (CS)
#cofog0150 R&D General public services (CS)
#cofog0160 General public services n.e.c. (CS)
#cofog0170 Public debt transactions (CS)
#cofog0180 Transfers of a general character between different levels of government (CS)

The tag for the function of government in a country is constructed by adding the ISO country code to the root-tag. For instance for Financial and fiscal affairs in each of the countries below:

Country ISO code class #tag section #tag
Australia AU #cofog0112AU #AU01fg
Botswana BW #cofog0112BW #BW01fg
Cameroon CM #cofog0112CM #CM01fg
Canada CA #cofog0112CA #CA01fg
The Gambia GM #cofog0112GM #GM01fg
Ghana GH #cofog0112GH #GH01fg
Guyana GY #cofog0112GY #GY01fg
India IN #cofog0112IN #IN01fg
Ireland IE #cofog0112IE #IE01fg
Jamaica JM #cofog0112JM #JM01fg
Jordan JO #cofog0112JO #JO01fg
Kenya KE #cofog0112KE #KE01fg
Lesotho LS #cofog0112LS #LS01fg
Liberia LR #cofog0112LR #LR01fg
Malawi MW #cofog0112MW #MW01fg
Mauritius MU #cofog0112MU #MU01fg
New Zealand NZ #cofog0112NZ #NZ01fg
Nigeria NG #cofog0112NG #NG01fg
Pakistan PK #cofog0112PK #PK01fg
Papua New Guinea PG #cofog0112PG #PG01fg
Philippines PH #cofog0112PH #PH01fg
Rwanda RW #cofog0112RW #RW01fg
Sierra Leone SL #cofog0112SL #SL01fg
Singapore SG #cofog0112SG #SG01fg
South Africa ZA #cofog0112ZA #ZA01fg
South Sudan SS #cofog0112SS #SS01fg
Sudan SD #cofog0112SD #SD01fg
Swaziland SZ #cofog0112SZ #SZ01fg
Tanzania TZ #cofog0112TZ #TZ01fg
Uganda UG #cofog0112UG #UG01fg
United Kingdom GB #cofog0112GB #GB01fg
United States of America US #cofog0112US #US01fg
Zambia ZM #cofog0112ZM #ZM01fg
Zimbabwe ZW #cofog0112ZW #ZW01fg

6. International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC)

ISIC is the abbreviation of International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities. In this booklet the tags are defined on the basis of the classes in revision 4. The full structure and definition of each of the over 400 classes is at the website of the United Nations Statistics Division. The below table lists the sections that group the classes.

The ISIC section, division and class definitions have also been added to the pages defining the isicWW hashtags which are a part of the Ens Dictionary.

The third annex lists the classes for each of the ISIC sections, with for each section a link to its complete description in the Ens Dictionary. The Ens dictionary also includes the full definition of each ISIC class and links to the corresponding product classes and product groups of the Central Product Classification.

#ww88 tag ISIC Revision 4 Section
#ww88A A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing
#ww88B B - Mining and quarrying
#ww88C C - Manufacturing
#ww88D D - Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
#ww88E E - Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
#ww88F F - Construction
#ww88G G - Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
#ww88H H - Transportation and storage
#ww88I I - Accommodation and food service activities
#ww88J J - Information and communication
#ww88K K - Financial and insurance activities
#ww88L L - Real estate activities
#ww88M M - Professional, scientific and technical activities
#ww88N N - Administrative and support service activities
#ww88O O - Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
#ww88P P - Education
#ww88Q Q - Human health and social work activities
#ww88R R - Arts, entertainment and recreation
#ww88S S - Other service activities
#ww88T T - Activities of households
#ww88U U - Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies

6.1 Tools for looking up isic hashtags

For the isic hashtags two tools are provided: tabbed tables in several languages and a term cloud in English.

The tagcoding pivot page of the Actor Atlas lists the ISIC divisions and classes per division in a tabbed table.

The ISIC sections on the front page of the tabbed table
The ISIC sections on the front page of the tabbed table

The Actor Atlas also has a English tagcloud for the economic activities.

Part of the tagcloud for the economic activities
Part of the tagcloud for the economic activities

Agricultural machinery occurs in these four ISIC classes:

ISIC classes that mention agricultural machinery
ISIC classes that mention agricultural machinery

The country #tagcoding pages list the hashtags for each economic activity, for instance for the section education in Germany it is #DE88P.

ISIC hashtags for the economic sectors in Germany
ISIC hashtags for the economic sectors in Germany
ISIC hashtags for the classes of the sector E: Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
ISIC hashtags for the classes of the sector E: Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

6.2 ISIC A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing

The ISIC section A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic0111 Growing of cereals (except rice), leguminous crops and oil seeds
#isic0112 Growing of rice
#isic0113 Growing of vegetables and melons, roots and tubers
#isic0114 Growing of sugar cane
#isic0115 Growing of tobacco
#isic0116 Growing of fibre crops
#isic0119 Growing of other non-perennial crops
#isic0121 Growing of grapes
#isic0122 Growing of tropical and subtropical fruits
#isic0123 Growing of citrus fruits
#isic0124 Growing of pome fruits and stone fruits
#isic0125 Growing of other tree and bush fruits and nuts
#isic0126 Growing of oleaginous fruits
#isic0127 Growing of beverage crops
#isic0128 Growing of spices, aromatic, drug and pharmaceutical crops
#isic0129 Growing of other perennial crops
#isic0130 Plant propagation
#isic0141 Raising of cattle and buffaloes
#isic0142 Raising of horses and other equines
#isic0143 Raising of camels and camelids
#isic0144 Raising of sheep and goats
#isic0145 Raising of swine/pigs
#isic0146 Raising of poultry
#isic0149 Raising of other animals
#isic0150 Mixed farming
#isic0161 Support activities for crop production
#isic0162 Support activities for animal production
#isic0163 Post-harvest crop activities
#isic0164 Seed processing for propagation
#isic0170 Hunting, trapping and related service activities
#isic0210 Silviculture and other forestry activities
#isic0220 Logging
#isic0230 Gathering of non-wood forest products
#isic0240 Support services to forestry
#isic0311 Marine fishing
#isic0312 Freshwater fishing
#isic0321 Marineaquaculture
#isic0322 Freshwater aquaculture

The #isic tag for an economic activity in a country is constructed by adding the ISO country code to the roottag in the previous table. For instance for Freshwater fishing in each of the countries below:

Tagcoding hashtags for freshwater fishing in selected countries.
Country ISO code isic tag
Canada CA #isic0312CA
The Gambia GM #isic0312GM
Ghana GH #isic0312GH
India IN #isic0312IN
Ireland IE #isic0312IE
Jordan JO #isic0312JO
Kenya KE #isic0312KE
Liberia LR #isic0312LR
Malawi MW #isic0312MW
Mauritius MU #isic0312MU
New Zealand NZ #isic0312NZ
Nigeria NG #isic0312NG
Pakistan PK #isic0312PK
Papua New Guinea PG #isic0312PG
Philippines PH #isic0312PH
Rwanda RW #isic0312RW
Sierra Leone SL #isic0312SL
South Africa ZA #isic0312ZA
South Sudan SS #isic0312SS
Sudan SD #isic0312SD
Swaziland SZ #isic0312SZ
Tanzania TZ #isic0312TZ
Uganda UG #isic0312UG
United Kingdom GB #isic0312GB
United States of America US #isic0312US
Zimbabwe ZW #isic0312ZW

7. Central Product Classification (CPC)

CPC is the abbreviation of Central Product Classification. The Central Product Classification (CPC) constitutes a complete product classification covering goods and services. It serves as an international standard for assembling and tabulating all kinds of data requiring product detail, including industrial production, national accounts, service industries, domestic and foreign commodity trade, international trade in services, balance of payments, consumption and price statistics.

At the website of the United Nations Statistics Division there is an English pdf document of 600 pages without bookmarks. It defines the product classes and describes by which ISIC classes products or services are produced. Also the correspondence to the Harmonized System used by customs is described. The below table lists the ten product sections.

Annex 4 lists the CPC divisions and groups for each of the ten CPC sections. For each section there is a link to the CPC Section page of the Ens Dictionary. The online Ens Dictionary CPC chapter contains the definitions and ISIC correspondences for each CPC section, division, group and class.

#tagcoding CPC section
#cpc0 Agriculture, forestry and fishery products
#cpc1 Ores and minerals; electricity, gas and water
#cpc2 Food products, beverages and tobacco; textiles, apparel and leather products
#cpc3 Other transportable goods, except metal products, machinery and equipment
#cpc4 Metal products, machinery and equipment
#cpc5 Constructions and construction services
#cpc6 Distributive trade services; accommodation, food and beverage serving services; transport services; and electricity, …
#cpc7 Financial and related services; real estate services; and rental and leasing services
#cpc8 Business and production services
#cpc9 Community, social and personal services

7.1 Tools for looking up cpc hashtags

The ISIC class definition page in the Ens Dictionary includes references to the cpc pages for its products or services. This is illustrated for #isic0230 - Gathering of non-wood forest products in the screenshot below.

The cpc hashtags for the products of an ISIC class
The cpc hashtags for the products of an ISIC class

Each CPC class page (in the Ens Dictionary) has a breadcrumbs which shows where it is positioned in the Central Product Classification. This is illustrated for #cpc0137 - Nuts (excluding wild edible nuts and groundnuts), in shell.

The breadcrumbs of a CPC class page
The breadcrumbs of a CPC class page

Each CPC class page (in the Ens Dictionary) has a siblings classes tab which shows the other classes (or divisions) in the Central Product Classification. This is also illustrated for #cpc0137 - Nuts (excluding wild edible nuts and groundnuts), in shell.

The sibling classes of a CPC class
The sibling classes of a CPC class

In the topic-#tag cloud for economic activities cpc hashtags are gradually being added to the terms, as illustrated in a small part of the top-#tag cloud below:

The part of the top-#tag cloud including "nuts"
The part of the top-#tag cloud including “nuts”

7.2 CPC 0 - Agriculture, forestry and fishery products

The CPC section A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc01 Products of agriculture, horticulture and market gardening
#cpc011 Cereals
#cpc012 Vegetables
#cpc013 Fruits and nuts
#cpc014 Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits
#cpc015 Edible roots and tubers with high starch or inulin content
#cpc016 Stimulant, spice and aromatic crops
#cpc017 Pulses (dried leguminous vegetables)
#cpc018 Sugar crops
#cpc019 Forage products; fibre crops; plants used in perfumery, pharmacy, or for insecticidal, fungicidal or similar purposes;
#cpc02 Live animals and animal products (excluding meat)
#cpc021 Live animals
#cpc022 Raw milk
#cpc023 Eggs of hens or other birds in shell, fresh
#cpc024 Reproductive materials of animals
#cpc029 Other animal products
#cpc03 Forestry and logging products
#cpc031 Wood in the rough
#cpc032 Non-wood forest products
#cpc04 Fish and other fishing products
#cpc041 Fish, live, not for human consumption
#cpc042 Fish live, fresh or chilled for human consumption
#cpc043 Crustaceans, live, fresh or chilled
#cpc044 Molluscs live, fresh or chilled
#cpc045 Other aquatic invertebrates, live, fresh or chilled
#cpc049 Other aquatic plants and animals

As yet, for cpc coding hashtags no localization by adding country codes has been practised. It is an option to do this. In that case #cpc023BE would refer to Eggs of hens or other birds in shell, fresh from Belgium, for instance.

It is also possible to create hashtags for the trade in products, for instance: #cpc021INBD for the trade of #cpc021 - Live animals from India (IN) to Bangladesh (BD).

News and content on tariffs for products traded from China (CN) to the United States of America (US), and vice versa, could thus be shared using coding hashtags combining the appropriate product division, group or class cpc tag, and adding the two-country codes CNUS or USCN respectively, such as for instance in #cpc042CNUS and #cpc042USCN.


8. Territorial Tags

The ISO country codes provide a first means for localizing the international coding hashtags. For these codes we provide a tabbed table listing countries per continent as part of pages of side-bars.

The front page of the country codes tabbed table
The front page of the country codes tabbed table

The tab “Oceania” lists these countries:

The Oceania tab
The Oceania tab

In the territorial “local government unit” hashtags we combine the ISO country code with numeric, alphabetic or alpha-numeric codes defined by the national statistics organizations for the local government units.

A list of national statistics organizations is provided at the national statistical system page of the Actor Atlas.

The Actor Atlas contains an alphabetic term cloud with the name and #WWlgu #tagcoding hashtag for major local government units in most countries of the world: Local government units with #WWlgu hashtag.

Part of the wwLGU lgu-hashtag cloud
Part of the wwLGU lgu-hashtag cloud

For the European Union, India, Nepal, the Philippines, Tanzania and the United States, separate more complete tagclouds have been created.


8.1 The European Union

The NUTS classification (Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics) is a hierarchical system for dividing up the economic territory of the EU for the purpose of statistical analysis. The current NUTS classification valid from 1 January 2012 until 31 December 2014 lists 97 regions at NUTS-1, 270 regions at NUTS-2 and 1294 regions at NUTS-3 level. Due to the accession of Croatia on 1 July 2013 the NUTS classification was extended by 1 NUTS-1, 2 NUTS-2 and 21 NUTS-3 regions. Full details on NUTS are at the Eurostat website.

Territorial #EUlgu tags on the basis of NUTS are defined at the EU Social Capital wiki. In the EU social capital wiki we are currently creating a wike page for each NUTS 3 area. Once these pages have been created, also the NUTS3 tagcloud will be complete.

Part of the EUlgu nuts3-hashtag cloud
Part of the EUlgu nuts3-hashtag cloud

The joint use of both the EU-wide NUTS tags and nationally defined codes is illustrated in the screenshot below, taken from the Hovedstaden page of the EU Social Capital Wiki: Frederiksberg, as part of Byen København, has “NUTS3 tag” #DK011, and it has tag #DK147 on the basis of its code in the Danish statistical system.

NUTS 3 areas in Copenhagen
NUTS 3 areas in Copenhagen

8.2 India

Territorial #INlgu tags are defined for states, union territories and districts, cities, villages and towns.

The current proposition is to use the coding pattern devised following the recommendation of the Metadata and Data Standard (MDDS) Committee. Its full details are at the Census of India website: Description of Coding Sequence for Location Code Directory.

This is the coding convention:

  • A State code of 2 digits within India
  • A District code of 3 digits continuous code within India
  • A Sub-district code of 5 digits continuous code within India
  • A Village code of 6 digits continuous code within India in which the range of 000001 – 799999 is for Villages and the range 800001 - 899999 is for statutory towns.

For instance the village Tamsi has sub-district code 04305, it is part of District Adilabad with code 532, in Andhra Pradesh with State code 28.

Part of the Census of India table with Location codes for Andhra Pradesh
Part of the Census of India table with Location codes for Andhra Pradesh

The #INlgu tags are as follows:

State Andhra Pradesh #IN28
District Adilabad #IN532
Village / Subdivision Tamsi #IN04305

The screenshot below shows part of the district-#INlgu cloud at the India #tags social capital wiki.

Part of the INlgu district-hashtag cloud
Part of the INlgu district-hashtag cloud

8.3 Nepal

Territorial #NPlgu tags will be defined for districts, cities, municipalities and Village Development Councils. For progress, see Nepal Social Capital wiki. #NPlgu tags are defined on the basis of identifiers defined by Nepal’s Central Bureau of Statistics.


8.4 Philippines

Territorial #PHlgu tags have been defined on the basis of municipal identifiers in the domestic statistical systems.

The screenshot below shows part of the municipality-#PHlgu cloud at the Philippines #tags social capital wiki.

Part of the PHlgu municipality-hashtag cloud
Part of the PHlgu municipality-hashtag cloud

8.5 Tanzania

Territorial #TZlgu tags have been defined for all districts and regions of Tanzania.

The screenshot below shows part of the Region or district-#TZlgu cloud at the Tanzania #tags social capital wiki.

Part of the TZlgu (region or district)-hashtag cloud
Part of the TZlgu (region or district)-hashtag cloud

8.6 United States of America

State and county #USlgu hashtags have been defined on the basis of the FIPS codes defined by the US census.

The screenshot below shows part of the County-#USlgu cloud at the US #tags social capital wiki.

Part of the USlgu county-hashtag cloud
Part of the USlgu county-hashtag cloud

References

Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG), UN Statistics Division, 2000 (p. 35-82) https://unstats.un.org/unsd/publications/catalogue?selectID=145

Bouissou, Julien, ‘Info ladies’ go biking to bring remote Bangladeshi villages online, The Guardian Global Development, July 30, 2013.

International Standard Industrial Classifications of All Economic Activities (ISIC) Rev.4, UN Statistics Division, 2008. (available in English, Arabic, French, Chinese, Spanish and Russian).

Kramnick, Isaac, “Encyclopédie” in The Portable Enlightenment Reader, edited by Isaac Kramnick, Toronto: Penguin Books, 1995, ISBN 0-14-024566-9.

Mulgan, Geoff, Collective intelligence and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals How the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) could become more like a platform; Nesta Blog, 28 September 2018.

Otlet, Paul. Traité de documentation (1934).

Perkowitz, Sidney, The Internet Before the Internet: Paul Otlet’s Mundaneum; JSTOR Daily, March 5, 2016.

Singh, J., Hansen, M. T., Podolny, J. M., September 2010. The world is not small for everyone: Inequity in searching for knowledge in organizations. MANAGEMENT SCIENCE 56 (9), 1415–1438. URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1100.1201.

Stiglitz, Joseph. “Scan Globally, Reinvent Locally: Knowledge Infrastructure and the Localization of Knowledge.” In Banking on Knowledge: The Genesis of the Global Development Network, 24-43. Ed. Diane Stone. London: Routledge, 2000.

The Open Group, ArchiMate® 3.0.1 Specification, 2017.

UN General Assembly, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Sept. 25, 2015. Available in EnglishArabic, French, Chinese, Spanish and Russian).

Wikipedia, on Encyclopédie (consulted September 2018).

Wikipedia, on Mundaneum (consulted September 2018).

Wright, Alex. Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age, Oxford University Press, 2014, ISBN 0-19-993141-0.


Annex 1 - #tagcoding hashtags for all Countries

This annex lists all countries and territories of the world, each with its ISO country code and their generic coding hashtags. Over a hundred thousand topics for discourse are supported by combining the ISO code with the #sdg, #cofog, #isic and #lgu root tags from the previous chapters. Moreover, there will be over a million #lgu tags.

For most countries, the #sdg, #lgu, #cofog and #isic tags are listed in their Actor Atlas page, as was illustrated in the previous chapters. Those territories for which this is not the case are marked with *.

Country ISO code cofog tag isic tag lgu tag sdg tag
Afghanistan AF #cofogAF #isicAF #AFlgu #sdgAF
Aland Islands* AX #cofogAX #isicAX #AXlgu #sdgAX
Albania AL #cofogAL #isicAL #ALlgu #sdgAL
Algeria DZ #cofogDZ #isicDZ #DZlgu #sdgDZ
American Samoa* AS #cofogAS #isicAS #ASlgu #sdgAS
Andorra* AD #cofogAD #isicAD #ADlgu #sdgAD
Angola AO #cofogAO #isicAO #AOlgu #sdgAO
Anguilla* AI #cofogAI #isicAI #AIlgu #sdgAI
Antarctica* AQ #cofogAQ #isicAQ #AQlgu #sdgAQ
Antigua and Barbuda AG #cofogAG #isicAG #AGlgu #sdgAG
Argentina AR #cofogAR #isicAR #ARlgu #sdgAR
Armenia AM #cofogAM #isicAM #AMlgu #sdgAM
Country ISO code cofog tag isic tag lgu tag sdg tag
Aruba* AW #cofogAW #isicAW #AWlgu #sdgAW
Australia AU #cofogAU #isicAU #AUlgu #sdgAU
Austria AT #cofogAT #isicAT #ATlgu #sdgAT
The Bahamas BS #cofogBS #isicBS #BSlgu #sdgBS
Bahrain BH #cofogBH #isicBH #BHlgu #sdgBH
Bangladesh BD #cofogBD #isicBD #BDlgu #sdgBD
Barbados BB #cofogBB #isicBB #BBlgu #sdgBB
Belarus BY #cofogBY #isicBY #BYlgu #sdgBY
Belgium BE #cofogBE #isicBE #BElgu #sdgBE
Belize BZ #cofogBZ #isicBZ #BZlgu #sdgBZ
Benin BJ #cofogBJ #isicBJ #BJlgu #sdgBJ
Bermuda BM #cofogBM #isicBM #BMlgu #sdgBM
Bhutan BT #cofogBT #isicBT #BTlgu #sdgBT
Bolivia BO #cofogBO #isicBO #BOlgu #sdgBO
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba* BQ #cofogBQ #isicBQ #BQlgu #sdgBQ
Bosnia and Herzegovina BA #cofogBA #isicBA #BAlgu #sdgBA
Botswana BW #cofogBW #isicBW #BWlgu #sdgBW
Bouvet Island* BV #cofogBV #isicBV #BVlgu #sdgBV
Brazil BR #cofogBR #isicBR #BRlgu #sdgBR
British Indian Ocean Territory* IO #cofogIO #isicIO #IOlgu #sdgIO
Brunei Darussalam BN #cofogBN #isicBN #BNlgu #sdgBN
Bulgaria BG #cofogBG #isicBG #BGlgu #sdgBG
Burkina Faso BF #cofogBF #isicBF #BFlgu #sdgBF
Burundi BI #cofogBI #isicBI #BIlgu #sdgBI
Cambodia KH #cofogKH #isicKH #KHlgu #sdgKH
Cameroon CM #cofogCM #isicCM #CMlgu #sdgCM
Canada CA #cofogCA #isicCA #CAlgu #sdgCA
Cape Verde CV #cofogCV #isicCV #CVlgu #sdgCV
Cayman Islands* KY #cofogKY #isicKY #KYlgu #sdgKY
Central African Republic CF #cofogCF #isicCF #CFlgu #sdgCF
Chad TD #cofogTD #isicTD #TDlgu #sdgTD
Chile CL #cofogCL #isicCL #CLlgu #sdgCL
China CN #cofogCN #isicCN #CNlgu #sdgCN
Christmas Island* CX #cofogCX #isicCX #CXlgu #sdgCX
Cocos (Keeling) Islands* CC #cofogCC #isicCC #CClgu #sdgCC
Colombia CO #cofogCO #isicCO #COlgu #sdgCO
Comoros KM #cofogKM #isicKM #KMlgu #sdgKM
Congo CG #cofogCG #isicCG #CGlgu #sdgCG
Congo, Democratic Republic of the CD #cofogCD #isicCD #CDlgu #sdgCD
Cook Islands* CK #cofogCK #isicCK #CKlgu #sdgCK
Costa Rica CR #cofogCR #isicCR #CRlgu #sdgCR
Côte d’Ivoire CI #cofogCI #isicCI #CIlgu #sdgCI
Croatia HR #cofogHR #isicHR #HRlgu #sdgHR
Country ISO code cofog tag isic tag lgu tag sdg tag
Cuba CU #cofogCU #isicCU #CUlgu #sdgCU
Curaçao* CW #cofogCW #isicCW #CWlgu #sdgCW
Cyprus CY #cofogCY #isicCY #CYlgu #sdgCY
Czech Republic CZ #cofogCZ #isicCZ #CZlgu #sdgCZ
Denmark DK #cofogDK #isicDK #DKlgu #sdgDK
Djibouti DJ #cofogDJ #isicDJ #DJlgu #sdgDJ
Dominica DM #cofogDM #isicDM #DMlgu #sdgDM
Dominican Republic DO #cofogDO #isicDO #DOlgu #sdgDO
Ecuador EC #cofogEC #isicEC #EClgu #sdgEC
Egypt EG #cofogEG #isicEG #EGlgu #sdgEG
El Salvador SV #cofogSV #isicSV #SVlgu #sdgSV
Equatorial Guinea GQ #cofogGQ #isicGQ #GQlgu #sdgGQ
Eritrea ER #cofogER #isicER #ERlgu #sdgER
Estonia EE #cofogEE #isicEE #EElgu #sdgEE
Ethiopia ET #cofogET #isicET #ETlgu #sdgET
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)* FK #cofogFK #isicFK #FKlgu #sdgFK
Faroe Islands* FO #cofogFO #isicFO #FOlgu #sdgFO
Fiji FJ #cofogFJ #isicFJ #FJlgu #sdgFJ
Finland FI #cofogFI #isicFI #FIlgu #sdgFI
France FR #cofogFR #isicFR #FRlgu #sdgFR
French Guiana* GF #cofogGF #isicGF #GFlgu #sdgGF
French Polynesia* PF #cofogPF #isicPF #PFlgu #sdgPF
French Southern Territories* TF #cofogTF #isicTF #TFlgu #sdgTF
Gabon GA #cofogGA #isicGA #GAlgu #sdgGA
The Gambia GM #cofogGM #isicGM #GMlgu #sdgGM
Georgia GE #cofogGE #isicGE #GElgu #sdgGE
Germany DE #cofogDE #isicDE #DElgu #sdgDE
Ghana GH #cofogGH #isicGH #GHlgu #sdgGH
Gibraltar* GI #cofogGI #isicGI #GIlgu #sdgGI
Greece GR #cofogGR #isicGR #GRlgu #sdgGR
Greenland* GL #cofogGL #isicGL #GLlgu #sdgGL
Grenada GD #cofogGD #isicGD #GDlgu #sdgGD
Guadeloupe* GP #cofogGP #isicGP #GPlgu #sdgGP
Guam* GU #cofogGU #isicGU #GUlgu #sdgGU
Guatemala GT #cofogGT #isicGT #GTlgu #sdgGT
Guernsey* GG #cofogGG #isicGG #GGlgu #sdgGG
Guinea GN #cofogGN #isicGN #GNlgu #sdgGN
Guinea-Bissau GW #cofogGW #isicGW #GWlgu #sdgGW
Guyana GY #cofogGY #isicGY #GYlgu #sdgGY
Haiti HT #cofogHT #isicHT #HTlgu #sdgHTG
Heard Island and McDonald Islands* HM #cofogHM #isicHM #HMlgu #sdgHM
Holy See (Vatican City State)* VA #cofogVA #isicVA #VAlgu #sdgVA
Honduras HN #cofogHN #isicHN #HNlgu #sdgHN
Hong Kong HK #cofogHK #isicHK #HKlgu #sdgHK
Hungary HU #cofogHU #isicHU #HUlgu #sdgHU
Iceland IS #cofogIS #isicIS #ISlgu #sdgIS
India IN #cofogIN #isicIN #INlgu #sdgIN
Indonesia ID #cofogID #isicID #IDlgu #sdgID
Iran, Islamic Rep. of IR #cofogIR #isicIR #IRlgu #sdgIR
Iraq IQ #cofogIQ #isicIQ #IQlgu #sdgIQ
Ireland IE #cofogIE #isicIE #IElgu #sdgIE
Isle of Man* IM #cofogIM #isicIM #IMlgu #sdgIM
Israel IL #cofogIL #isicIL #ILlgu #sdgIL
Italy IT #cofogIT #isicIT #ITlgu #sdgIT
Jamaica JM #cofogJM #isicJM #JMlgu #sdgJM
Japan JP #cofogJP #isicJP #JPlgu #sdgJP
Jersey* JE #cofogJE #isicJE #JElgu #sdgJE
Jordan JO #cofogJO #isicJO #JOlgu #sdgJO
Kazakhstan KZ #cofogKZ #isicKZ #KZlgu #sdgKZ
Kenya KE #cofogKE #isicKE #KElgu #sdgKE
Kiribati KI #cofogKI #isicKI #KIlgu #sdgKI
Korea, DPR KP #cofogKP #isicKP #KPlgu #sdgKP
Korea, Republic of KR #cofogKR #isicKR #KRlgu #sdgKR
Kuwait KW #cofogKW #isicKW #KWlgu #sdgKW
Kyrgyzstan KG #cofogKG #isicKG #KGlgu #sdgKG
Lao, PDR LA #cofogLA #isicLA #LAlgu #sdgLA
Latvia LV #cofogLV #isicLV #LVlgu #sdgLV
Lebanon LB #cofogLB #isicLB #LBlgu #sdgLB
Lesotho LS #cofogLS #isicLS #LSlgu #sdgLSG
Liberia LR #cofogLR #isicLR #LRlgu #sdgLR
Libya LY #cofogLY #isicLY #LYlgu #sdgLY
Liechtenstein* LI #cofogLI #isicLI #LIlgu #sdgAG
Lithuania LT #cofogLT #isicLT #LTlgu #sdgLT
Luxembourg LU #cofogLU #isicLU #LUlgu #sdgLU
Macao* MO #cofogMO #isicMO #MOlgu #sdgMO
Macedonia, FYR MK #cofogMK #isicMK #MKlgu #sdgMK
Madagascar MG #cofogMG #isicMG #MGlgu #sdgMG
Malawi MW #cofogMW #isicMW #MWlgu #sdgMW
Malaysia MY #cofogMY #isicMY #MYlgu #sdgMY
Maldives MV #cofogMV #isicMV #MVlgu #sdgMV
Mali ML #cofogML #isicML #MLlgu #sdgML
Malta MT #cofogMT #isicMT #MTlgu #sdgMT
Marshall Islands MH #cofogMH #isicMH #MHlgu #sdgMH
Martinique* MQ #cofogMQ #isicMQ #MQlgu #sdgMQ
Mauritania MR #cofogMR #isicMR #MRlgu #sdgMR
Mauritius MU #cofogMU #isicMU #MUlgu #sdgMU
Mayotte* YT #cofogYT #isicYT #YTlgu #sdgYT
Mexico MX #cofogMX #isicMX #MXlgu #sdgMX
Micronesia, Fed. States FM #cofogFM #isicFM #FMlgu #sdgFM
Moldova, Republic of MD #cofogMD #isicMD #MDlgu #sdgMD
Monaco* MC #cofogMC #isicMC #MClgu #sdgMC
Mongolia MN #cofogMN #isicMN #MNlgu #sdgMN
Montenegro ME #cofogME #isicME #MElgu #sdgME
Montserrat* MS #cofogMS #isicMS #MSlgu #sdgMS
Morocco MA #cofogMA #isicMA #MAlgu #sdgMA
Mozambique MZ #cofogMZ #isicMZ #MZlgu #sdgMZ
Myanmar MM #cofogMM #isicMM #MMlgu #sdgMM
Namibia NA #cofogNA #isicNA #NAlgu #sdgNA
Nauru* NR #cofogNR #isicNR #NRlgu #sdgNR
Nepal NP #cofogNP #isicNP #NPlgu #sdgNP
Netherlands NL #cofogNL #isicNL #NLlgu #sdgNL
New Caledonia* NC #cofogNC #isicNC #NClgu #sdgNC
New Zealand NZ #cofogNZ #isicNZ #NZlgu #sdgNZ
Nicaragua NI #cofogNI #isicNI #NIlgu #sdgNI
Niger NE #cofogNE #isicNE #NElgu #sdgNE
Nigeria NG #cofogNG #isicNG #NGlgu #sdgNG
Niue* NU #cofogNU #isicNU #NUlgu #sdgNU
Norfolk Island* NF #cofogNF #isicNF #NFlgu #sdgNF
Northern Mariana Islands* MP #cofogMP #isicMP #MPlgu #sdgMP
Norway NO #cofogNO #isicNO #NOlgu #sdgNO
Oman OM #cofogOM #isicOM #OMlgu #sdgOM
Pakistan PK #cofogPK #isicPK #PKlgu #sdgPK
Palau PW #cofogPW #isicPW #PWlgu #sdgPW
Palestine, State of PS #cofogPS #isicPS #PSlgu #sdgPS
Panama PA #cofogPA #isicPA #PAlgu #sdgPA
Papua New Guinea PG #cofogPG #isicPG #PGlgu #sdgPG
Paraguay PY #cofogPY #isicPY #PYlgu #sdgPY
Peru PE #cofogPE #isicPE #PElgu #sdgPE
Philippines PH #cofogPH #isicPH #PHlgu #sdgPH
Pitcairn* PN #cofogPN #isicPN #PNlgu #sdgPN
Poland PL #cofogPL #isicPL #PLlgu #sdgPL
Portugal PT #cofogPT #isicPT #PTlgu #sdgPT
Puerto Rico PR #cofogPR #isicPR #PRlgu #sdgPR
Qatar QA #cofogQA #isicQA #QAlgu #sdgQA
Réunion* RE #cofogRE #isicRE #RElgu #sdgRE
Romania RO #cofogRO #isicRO #ROlgu #sdgRO
Russian Federation RU #cofogRU #isicRU #RUlgu #sdgRU
Rwanda RW #cofogRW #isicRW #RWlgu #sdgRW
St. Barthélemy* BL #cofogBL #isicBL #BLlgu #sdgBL
St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha* SH #cofogSH #isicSH #SHlgu #sdgSH
St. Kitts and Nevis KN #cofogKN #isicKN #KNlgu #sdgKN
St. Lucia LC #cofogLC #isicLC #LClgu #sdgLC
St. Maarten (French Part)* MF #cofogMF #isicMF #MFlgu #sdgMF
St. Pierre and Miquelon* PM #cofogPM #isicPM #PMlgu #sdgPM
St. Vincent and the Grenadines VC #cofogVC #isicVC #VClgu #sdgVC
Samoa* WS #cofogWS #isicWS #WSlgu #sdgWS
San Marino* SM #cofogSM #isicSM #SMlgu #sdgSM
Country ISO code cofog tag isic tag lgu tag sdg tag
São Tomé and Principe ST #cofogST #isicST #STlgu #sdgST
Saudi Arabia SA #cofogSA #isicSA #SAlgu #sdgSA
Senegal SN #cofogSN #isicSN #SNlgu #sdgSN
Serbia RS #cofogRS #isicRS #RSlgu #sdgRS
Seychelles SC #cofogSC #isicSC #SClgu #sdgSC
Sierra Leone SL #cofogSL #isicSL #SLlgu #sdgSL
Singapore SG #cofogSG #isicSG #SGlgu #sdgSG
Sint Maarten (Dutch Part)* SX #cofogSX #isicSX #SXlgu #sdgSX
Slovakia SK #cofogSK #isicSK #SKlgu #sdgSK
Slovenia SI #cofogSI #isicSI #SIlgu #sdgSI
Solomon Islands SB #cofogSB #isicSB #SBlgu #sdgSB
Somalia SO #cofogSO #isicSO #SOlgu #sdgSO
South Africa ZA #cofogZA #isicZA #ZAlgu #sdgZA
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands* GS #cofogGS #isicGS #GSlgu #sdgGS
South Sudan SS #cofogSS #isicSS #SSlgu #sdgSS
Spain ES #cofogES #isicES #ESlgu #sdgES
Sri Lanka LK #cofogLK #isicLK #LKlgu #sdgLK
Sudan SD #cofogSD #isicSD #SDlgu #sdgSD
Suriname SR #cofogSR #isicSR #SRlgu #sdgSR
Svalbard and Jan Mayen* SJ #cofogSJ #isicSJ #SJlgu #sdgSJ
Country ISO code cofog tag isic tag lgu tag sdg tag
Swaziland SZ #cofogSZ #isicSZ #SZlgu #sdgSZ
Sweden SE #cofogSE #isicSE #SElgu #sdgSE
Switzerland CH #cofogCH #isicCH #CHlgu #sdgCH
Syrian Arab Republic SY #cofogSY #isicSY #SYlgu #sdgSY
Taiwan TW #cofogTW #isicTW #TWlgu #sdgTW
Tajikistan TJ #cofogTJ #isicTJ #TJlgu #sdgTJ
Tanzania TZ #cofogTZ #isicTZ #TZlgu #sdgTZ
Thailand TH #cofogTH #isicTH #THlgu #sdgTH
Timor-Leste TL #cofogTL #isicTL #TLlgu #sdgTL
Togo TG #cofogTG #isicTG #TGlgu #sdgTG
Tokelau* TK #cofogTK #isicTK #TKlgu #sdgTK
Tonga TO #cofogTO #isicTO #TOlgu #sdgTO
Trinidad and Tobago TT #cofogTT #isicTT #TTlgu #sdgTT
Tunisia TN #cofogTN #isicTN #TNlgu #sdgTN
Turkey TR #cofogTR #isicTR #TRlgu #sdgTR
Turkmenistan TM #cofogTM #isicTM #TMlgu #sdgTM
Turks and Caicos Islands* TC #cofogTC #isicTC #TClgu #sdgTC
Tuvalu* TV #cofogTV #isicTV #TVlgu #sdgTV
Uganda UG #cofogUG #isicUG #UGlgu #sdgUG
Ukraine UA #cofogUA #isicUA #UAlgu #sdgUA
United Arab Emirates AE #cofogAE #isicAE #AElgu #sdgAE
Country ISO code cofog tag isic tag lgu tag sdg tag
United Kingdom GB #cofogGB #isicGB #GBlgu #sdgGB
United States of America US #cofogUS #isicUS #USlgu #sdgUS
United States of America Minor Outlying Islands UM #cofogUM #isicUM #UMlgu #sdgUM
Uruguay UY #cofogUY #isicUY #UYlgu #sdgUY
Uzbekistan UZ #cofogUZ #isicUZ #UZlgu #sdgUZ
Vanuatu VU #cofogVU #isicVU #VUlgu #sdgVU
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of VE #cofogVE #isicVE #VElgu #sdgVE
Vietnam VN #cofogVN #isicVN #VNlgu #sdgVN
Virgin Islands, British* VG #cofogVG #isicVG #VGlgu #sdgVG
Virgin Islands, U.S.* VI #cofogVI #isicVI #VIlgu #sdgVI
Wallis and Futuna* WF #cofogWF #isicWF #WFlgu #sdgWF
Western Sahara* EH #cofogEH #isicEH #EHlgu #sdgEH
Yemen YE #cofogYE #isicYE #YElgu #sdgYE
Zambia ZM #cofogZM #isicZM #ZMlgu #sdgZM
Zimbabwe ZW #cofogZW #isicZW #ZWlgu #sdgZW

Annex 2 - Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG)

COFOG is the abbreviation of Classification of the Functions of Government. The full structure and definition of each of the over 100 classes can be found in a publication of the United Nations Statistics Division: Classifications of Expenditure According to Purpose: Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG); Classification of Individual Consumption According to Purpose (COICOP); Classification of the Purposes of Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households (COPNI); Classification of the Outlays of Producers According to Purpose (COPP) at the website of the United Nations Statistics Division. In the below list of the COFOG sections and classes there is a link to their definitions in the Ens Dictionary.

A first table lists the sections in the classification. Next the classes are listed for each of the tens sections. In the COFOG class names, four abbreviations are frequently used: CS, IS, R&D and n.e.c. CS means collective services, IS means individual services, R&D means Research and Development and n.e.c. means not elsewhere classified.

cofog #tag COFOG Section
#cofog01 01 - General Public Services
#cofog02 02 - Defence
#cofog03 03 - Public Order and Safety
#cofog04 04 - Economic Affairs
#cofog05 05 - Environmental Protection
#cofog06 06 - Housing and Community Amenities
#cofog07 07 - Health
#cofog08 08 - Recreation, Culture and Religion
#cofog09 09 - Education
#cofog10 10 - Social Protection

COFOG 01 - General Public Services

The COFOG section 01 - General Public Services contains the classes in the below table.

cofog #tag Class name
#cofog0111 Executive and legislative organs (CS)
#cofog0112 Financial and fiscal affairs (CS)
#cofog0113 External affairs (CS)
#cofog0121 Economic aid to developing countries and countries in transition (CS)
#cofog0122 Economic aid routed through international organizations (CS)
#cofog0131 General personnel services (CS)
#cofog0132 Overall planning and statistical services (CS)
#cofog0133 Other general services (CS)
#cofog0140 Basic research (CS)
#cofog0150 R&D General public services (CS)
#cofog0160 General public services n.e.c. (CS)
#cofog0170 Public debt transactions (CS)
#cofog0180 Transfers of a general character between different levels of government (CS)

COFOG 02 - Defence

The COFOG section 02 - Defence contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0210 Military defence (CS)
#cofog0220 Civil defence (CS)
#cofog0230 Foreign military aid (CS)
#cofog0240 R&D Defence (CS)
#cofog0250 Defence n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 03 - Public Order and Safety

The COFOG section 03 - Public Order and Safety contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0310 Police services (CS)
#cofog0320 Fire-protection services (CS)
#cofog0330 Law courts (CS)
#cofog0340 Prisons (CS)
#cofog0350 R&D Public order and safety (CS)
#cofog0360 Public order and safety n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 04 - Economic Affairs

The COFOG section 04 - Economic Affairs contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0411 General economic and commercial affairs (CS)
#cofog0412 General labour affairs (CS)
#cofog0421 Agriculture (CS)
#cofog0422 Forestry (CS)
#cofog0423 Fishing and hunting (CS)
#cofog0431 Coal and other solid mineral fuels (CS)
#cofog0432 Petroleum and natural gas (CS)
#cofog0433 Nuclear fuel (CS)
#cofog0434 Other fuels (CS)
#cofog0435 Electricity (CS)
#cofog0436 Non-electric energy (CS)
#cofog0441 Mining of mineral resources other than mineral fuels (CS)
#cofog0442 Manufacturing (CS)
#cofog0443 Construction (CS)
#cofog0451 Road transport (CS)
#cofog0452 Water transport (CS)
#cofog0453 Railway transport (CS)
#cofog0454 Air transport (CS)
#cofog0455 Pipeline and other transport (CS)
#cofog0460 Communication (CS)
#cofog0471 Distributive trades, storage and warehousing (CS)
#cofog0472 Hotels and restaurants (CS)
#cofog0473 Tourism (CS)
#cofog0474 Multi-purpose development projects (CS)
#cofog0481 R&D General economic, commercial and labour affairs (CS)
#cofog0482 R&D Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting (CS)
#cofog0483 R&D Fuel and energy (CS)
#cofog0484 R&D Mining, manufacturing and construction (CS)
#cofog0485 R&D Transport (CS)
#cofog0486 R&D Communication (CS)
#cofog0487 R&D Other industries (CS)
#cofog0490 Economic affairs n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 05 - Environmental Protection

The COFOG section 05 - Environmental Protection contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0510 Waste management (CS)
#cofog0520 Waste water management (CS)
#cofog0530 Pollution abatement (CS)
#cofog0540 Protection of biodiversity and landscape (CS)
#cofog0550 R&D Environmental protection (CS)
#cofog0560 Environmental protection n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 06 - Housing and Community Amenities

The COFOG section 06 - Housing and Community Amenities contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0610 Housing development (CS)
#cofog0620 Community development (CS)
#cofog0630 Water supply (CS)
#cofog0640 Street lighting (CS)
#cofog0650 R&D Housing and community amenities (CS)
#cofog0660 Housing and community amenities n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 07 - Health

The COFOG section 07 - Health contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0711 Pharmaceutical products (IS)
#cofog0712 Other medical products (IS)
#cofog0713 Therapeutic appliances and equipment (IS)
#cofog0721 General medical services (IS)
#cofog0722 Specialized medical services (IS)
#cofog0723 Dental services (IS)
#cofog0724 General hospital services (IS)
#cofog0732 Specialized hospital services (IS)
#cofog0733 Medical and maternity centre services (IS)
#cofog0734 Nursing and convalescent home services (IS)
#cofog0740 Public health services (IS)
#cofog0750 R&D Health (CS)
#cofog0760 Health n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 08 - Recreation, Culture and Religion

The COFOG section 08 - Recreation, Culture and Religion contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0810 Recreational and sporting services (IS)
#cofog0820 Cultural services (IS)
#cofog0830 Broadcasting and publishing services (CS)
#cofog0840 Religious and other community services (CS)
#cofog0850 R&D Recreation, culture and religion (CS)
#cofog0860 Recreation, culture and religion n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 09 - Education

The COFOG section 09 - Education contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog0911 Pre-primary education (IS)
#cofog0912 Primary education (IS)
#cofog0921 Lower-secondary education (IS)
#cofog0922 Upper-secondary education (IS)
#cofog0930 Post-secondary non-tertiary education (IS)
#cofog0941 First stage of tertiary education (IS)
#cofog0942 Second stage of tertiary education (IS)
#cofog0950 Education not definable by level (IS)
#cofog0960 Subsidiary services to education (IS)
#cofog0970 R&D Education (CS)
#cofog0980 Education n.e.c. (CS)

COFOG 10 - Social Protection

The COFOG section 10 - Social Protection contains the classes in the below table.

cofog tag Class name
#cofog1011 Sickness (IS)
#cofog1012 Disability (IS)
#cofog1020 Old age (IS)
#cofog1030 Survivors (IS)
#cofog1040 Family and children (IS)
#cofog1050 Unemployment (IS)
#cofog1060 Housing (IS)
#cofog1070 Social exclusion n.e.c. (IS)
#cofog1080 R&D Social protection (CS)
#cofog1090 Social protection n.e.c. (CS)

Annex 3 - International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC)

ISIC is the abbreviation of International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities. In this booklet the tags are defined on the basis of the classes in revision 4. The full structure and definition of each of the over 400 classes is at the website of the United Nations Statistics Division. The below table lists the sections that group the classes.

#tag ISIC Revision 4 Sections
#ww88A A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing
#ww88B B - Mining and quarrying
#ww88C C - Manufacturing
#ww88D D - Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
#ww88E E - Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities
#ww88F F - Construction
#ww88G G - Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
#ww88H H - Transportation and storage
#ww88I I - Accommodation and food service activities
#ww88J J - Information and communication
#ww88K K - Financial and insurance activities
#ww88L L - Real estate activities
#ww88M M - Professional, scientific and technical activities
#ww88N N - Administrative and support service activities
#ww88O O - Public administration and defence; compulsory social security
#ww88P P - Education
#ww88Q Q - Human health and social work activities
#ww88R R - Arts, entertainment and recreation
#ww88S S - Other service activities
#ww88T T - Activities of households
#ww88U U - Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies

ISIC A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing

The ISIC section A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic0111 Growing of cereals (except rice), leguminous crops and oil seeds
#isic0112 Growing of rice
#isic0113 Growing of vegetables and melons, roots and tubers
#isic0114 Growing of sugar cane
#isic0115 Growing of tobacco
#isic0116 Growing of fibre crops
#isic0119 Growing of other non-perennial crops
#isic0121 Growing of grapes
#isic0122 Growing of tropical and subtropical fruits
#isic0123 Growing of citrus fruits
#isic0124 Growing of pome fruits and stone fruits
#isic0125 Growing of other tree and bush fruits and nuts
#isic0126 Growing of oleaginous fruits
#isic0127 Growing of beverage crops
#isic0128 Growing of spices, aromatic, drug and pharmaceutical crops
#isic0129 Growing of other perennial crops
#isic0130 Plant propagation
#isic0141 Raising of cattle and buffaloes
#isic0142 Raising of horses and other equines
#isic0143 Raising of camels and camelids
#isic0144 Raising of sheep and goats
#isic0145 Raising of swine/pigs
#isic0146 Raising of poultry
#isic0149 Raising of other animals
#isic0150 Mixed farming
#isic0161 Support activities for crop production
#isic0162 Support activities for animal production
#isic0163 Post-harvest crop activities
#isic0164 Seed processing for propagation
#isic0170 Hunting, trapping and related service activities
#isic0210 Silviculture and other forestry activities
#isic0220 Logging
#isic0230 Gathering of non-wood forest products
#isic0240 Support services to forestry
#isic0311 Marine fishing
#isic0312 Freshwater fishing
#isic0321 Marineaquaculture
#isic0322 Freshwater aquaculture

ISIC B - Mining and quarrying

The ISIC section B - Mining and quarrying contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic0510 Mining of hard coal
#isic0520 Mining of lignite
#isic0610 Extraction of crude petroleum
#isic0620 Extraction of natural gas
#isic0710 Mining of iron ores
#isic0721 Mining of uranium and thorium ores
#isic0729 Mining of other non-ferrous metal ores
#isic0810 Quarrying of stone, sand and clay
#isic0891 Mining of chemical and fertilizer minerals
#isic0892 Extraction of peat
#isic0893 Extraction of salt
#isic0899 Other mining and quarrying n.e.c.
#isic0910 Support activities for petroleum and natural gas extraction
#isic0990 Support activities for other mining and quarrying

ISIC C - Manufacturing

The ISIC section C - Manufacturing contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic1010 Processing and preserving of meat
#isic1020 Processing and preserving of fish, crustaceans and molluscs
#isic1030 Processing and preserving of fruit and vegetables
#isic1040 Manufacture of vegetable and animal oils and fats
#isic1050 Manufacture of dairy products
#isic1061 Manufacture of grain mill products
#isic1062 Manufacture of starches and starch products
#isic1071 Manufacture of bakery products
#isic1072 Manufacture of sugar
#isic1073 Manufacture of cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery
#isic1074 Manufacture of macaroni, noodles, couscous and similar farinaceous products
#isic1075 Manufacture of prepared meals and dishes
#isic1079 Manufacture of other food products n.e.c.
#isic1080 Manufacture of prepared animal feeds
#isic1101 Distilling, rectifying and blending of spirits
#isic1102 Manufacture of wines
#isic1103 Manufacture of malt liquors and malt
#isic1104 Manufacture of soft drinks; production of mineral waters and other bottled waters
#isic1200 Manufacture of tobacco products
#isic1311 Preparation and spinning of textile fibres
#isic1312 Weaving of textiles
#isic1313 Finishing of textiles
#isic1391 Manufacture of knitted and crocheted fabrics
#isic1392 Manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel
#isic1393 Manufacture of carpets and rugs
#isic1394 Manufacture of cordage, rope, twine and netting
#isic1399 Manufacture of other textiles n.e.c.
#isic1410 Manufacture of wearing apparel, except fur apparel
#isic1420 Manufacture of articles of fur
#isic1430 Manufacture of knitted and crocheted apparel
#isic1511 Tanning and dressing of leather; dressing and dyeing of fur
#isic1512 Manufacture of luggage, handbags and the like, saddlery and harness
#isic1520 Manufacture of footwear
#isic1610 Sawmilling and planing of wood
#isic1621 Manufacture of veneer sheets and wood-based panels
#isic1622 Manufacture of builders’ carpentry and joinery
#isic1623 Manufacture of wooden containers
#isic1629 Manufacture of other products of wood; manufacture of articles of cork, straw and plaiting materials
#isic1701 Manufacture of pulp, paper and paperboard
#isic1702 Manufacture of corrugated paper and paperboard and of containers of paper and paperboard
#isic1709 Manufacture of other articles of paper and paperboard
#isic1811 Printing
#isic1812 Service activities related to printing
#isic1820 Reproduction of recorded media
#isic1910 Manufacture of coke oven products
#isic1920 Manufacture of refined petroleum products
#isic2011 Manufacture of basic chemicals
#isic2012 Manufacture of fertilizers and nitrogen compounds
#isic2013 Manufacture of plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms
#isic2021 Manufacture of pesticides and other agrochemical products
#isic2022 Manufacture of paints, varnishes and similar coatings, printing ink and mastics
#isic2023 Manufacture of soap and detergents, cleaning and polishing preparations, perfumes and toilet preparations
#isic2029 Manufacture of other chemical products n.e.c.
#isic2030 Manufacture of man-made fibres
#isic2100 Manufacture of pharmaceuticals, medicinal chemical and botanical products
#isic2211 Manufacture of rubber tyres and tubes; retreading and rebuilding of rubber tyres
#isic2219 Manufacture of other rubber products
#isic2220 Manufacture of plastics products
#isic2310 Manufacture of glass and glass products
#isic2391 Manufacture of refractory products
#isic2392 Manufacture of clay building materials
#isic2393 Manufacture of other porcelain and ceramic products
#isic2394 Manufacture of cement, lime and plaster
#isic2395 Manufacture of articles of concrete, cement and plaster
#isic2396 Cutting, shaping and finishing of stone
#isic2399 Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products n.e.c.
#isic2410 Manufacture of basic iron and steel
#isic2420 Manufacture of basic precious and other non-ferrous metals
#isic2431 Casting of iron and steel
#isic2432 Casting of non-ferrous metals
#isic2511 Manufacture of structural metal products
#isic2512 Manufacture of tanks, reservoirs and containers of metal
#isic2513 Manufacture of steam generators, except central heating hot water boilers
#isic2520 Manufacture of weapons and ammunition
#isic2591 Forging, pressing, stamping and roll-forming of metal; powder metallurgy
#isic2592 Treatment and coating of metals; machining
#isic2593 Manufacture of cutlery, hand tools and general hardware
#isic2599 Manufacture of other fabricated metal products n.e.c.
#isic2610 Manufacture of electronic components and boards
#isic2620 Manufacture of computers and peripheral equipment
#isic2630 Manufacture of communication equipment
#isic2640 Manufacture of consumer electronics
#isic2651 Manufacture of measuring, testing, navigating and control equipment
#isic2652 Manufacture of watches and clocks
#isic2660 Manufacture of irradiation, electromedical and electrotherapeutic equipment
#isic2670 Manufacture of optical instruments and photographic equipment
#isic2680 Manufacture of magnetic and optical media
#isic2710 Manufacture of electric motors, generators, transformers and electricity distribution and control apparatus
#isic2720 Manufacture of batteries and accumulators
#isic2731 Manufacture of fibre optic cables
#isic2732 Manufacture of other electronic and electric wires and cables
#isic2733 Manufacture of wiring devices
#isic2740 Manufacture of electric lighting equipment
#isic2750 Manufacture of domestic appliances
#isic2790 Manufacture of other electrical equipment
#isic2811 Manufacture of engines and turbines, except aircraft, vehicle and cycle engines
#isic2812 Manufacture of fluid power equipment
#isic2813 Manufacture of other pumps, compressors, taps and valves
#isic2814 Manufacture of bearings, gears, gearing and driving elements
#isic2815 Manufacture of ovens, furnaces and furnace burners
#isic2816 Manufacture of lifting and handling equipment
#isic2817 Manufacture of office machinery and equipment (except computers and peripheral equipment)
#isic2818 Manufacture of power-driven hand tools
#isic2819 Manufacture of other general-purpose machinery
#isic2821 Manufacture of agricultural and forestry machinery
#isic2822 Manufacture of metal-forming machinery and machine tools
#isic2823 Manufacture of machinery for metallurgy
#isic2824 Manufacture of machinery for mining, quarrying and construction
#isic2825 Manufacture of machinery for food, beverage and tobacco processing
#isic2826 Manufacture of machinery for textile, apparel and leather production
#isic2829 Manufacture of other special-purpose machinery
#isic2910 Manufacture of motor vehicles
#isic2920 Manufacture of bodies (coachwork) for motor vehicles; manufacture of trailers and semi-trailers
#isic2930 Manufacture of parts and accessories for motor vehicles
#isic3011 Building of ships and floating structures
#isic3012 Building of pleasure and sporting boats
#isic3020 Manufacture of railway locomotives and rolling stock
#isic3030 Manufacture of air and spacecraft and related machinery
#isic3040 Manufacture of military fighting vehicles
#isic3091 Manufacture of motorcycles
#isic3092 Manufacture of bicycles and invalid carriages
#isic3099 Manufacture of other transport equipment n.e.c.
#isic3100 Manufacture of furniture
#isic3211 Manufacture of jewellery and related articles
#isic3212 Manufacture of imitation jewellery and related articles
#isic3220 Manufacture of musical instruments
#isic3230 Manufacture of sports goods
#isic3240 Manufacture of games and toys
#isic3250 Manufacture of medical and dental instruments and supplies
#isic3290 Other manufacturing n.e.c.
#isic3311 Repair of fabricated metal products
#isic3312 Repair of machinery
#isic3313 Repair of electronic and optical equipment
#isic3314 Repair of electrical equipment
#isic3315 Repair of transport equipment, except motor vehicles
#isic3319 Repair of other equipment
#isic3320 Installation of industrial machinery and equipment

ISIC D - Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply

The ISIC section D - Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic3510 Electric power generation, transmission and distribution
#isic3520 Manufacture of gas; distribution of gaseous fuels through mains
#isic3530 Steam and air conditioning supply

ISIC E - Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities

The ISIC section E - Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic3600 Water collection, treatment and supply
#isic3700 Sewerage
#isic3811 Collection of non-hazardous waste
#isic3812 Collection of hazardous waste
#isic3821 Treatment and disposal of non-hazardous waste
#isic3822 Treatment and disposal of hazardous waste
#isic3830 Materials recovery
#isic3900 Remediation activities and other waste management services

ISIC F - Construction

The ISIC section F - Construction contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic4100 Construction of buildings
#isic4210 Construction of roads and railways
#isic4220 Construction of utility projects
#isic4290 Construction of other civil engineering projects
#isic4311 Demolition
#isic4312 Site preparation
#isic4321 Electrical installation
#isic4322 Plumbing, heat and air-conditioning installation
#isic4329 Other construction installation
#isic4330 Building completion and finishing
#isic4390 Other specialized construction activities

ISIC G - Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles

The ISIC section G - Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic4510 Sale of motor vehicles
#isic4520 Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles
#isic4530 Sale of motor vehicle parts and accessories
#isic4540 Sale, maintenance and repair of motorcycles and related parts and accessories
#isic4610 Wholesale on a fee or contract basis
#isic4620 Wholesale of agricultural raw materials and live animals
#isic4630 Wholesale of food, beverages and tobacco
#isic4641 Wholesale of textiles, clothing and footwear
#isic4649 Wholesale of other household goods
#isic4651 Wholesale of computers, computer peripheral equipment and software
#isic4652 Wholesale of electronic and telecommunications equipment and parts
#isic4653 Wholesale of agricultural machinery, equipment and supplies
#isic4659 Wholesale of other machinery and equipment
#isic4661 Wholesale of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and related products
#isic4662 Wholesale of metals and metal ores
#isic4663 Wholesale of construction materials, hardware, plumbing and heating equipment and supplies
#isic4669 Wholesale of waste and scrap and other products n.e.c.
#isic4690 Non-specialized wholesale trade
#isic4711 Retail sale in non-specialized stores with food, beverages or tobacco predominating
#isic4719 Other retail sale in non-specialized stores
#isic4721 Retail sale of food in specialized stores
#isic4722 Retail sale of beverages in specialized stores
#isic4723 Retail sale of tobacco products in specialized stores
#isic4730 Retail sale of automotive fuel in specialized stores
#isic4741 Retail sale of computers, peripheral units, software and telecommunications equipment in specialized stores
#isic4742 Retail sale of audio and video equipment in specialized stores
#isic4751 Retail sale of textiles in specialized stores
#isic4752 Retail sale of hardware, paints and glass in specialized stores
#isic4753 Retail sale of carpets, rugs, wall and floor coverings in specialized stores
#isic4759 Retail sale of elect. household appliances, furniture, lighting equipment and other household articles in specialised stores
#isic4761 Retail sale of books, newspapers and stationary in specialized stores
#isic4762 Retail sale of music and video recordings in specialized stores
#isic4763 Retail sale of sporting equipment in specialized stores
#isic4764 Retail sale of games and toys in specialized stores
#isic4771 Retail sale of clothing, footwear and leather articles in specialized stores
#isic4772 Retail sale of pharmaceutical and medical goods, cosmetic and toilet articles in specialized stores
#isic4773 Other retail sale of new goods in specialized stores
#isic4774 Retail sale of second-hand goods
#isic4781 Retail sale via stalls and markets of food, beverages and tobacco products
#isic4782 Retail sale via stalls and markets of textiles, clothing and footwear
#isic4789 Retail sale via stalls and markets of other goods
#isic4791 Retail sale via mail order houses or via Internet
#isic4799 Other retail sale not in stores, stalls or markets

ISIC H - Transportation and storage

The ISIC section H - Transportation and storage contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic4911 Passenger rail transport, interurban
#isic4912 Freight rail transport
#isic4921 Urban and suburban passenger land transport
#isic4922 Other passenger land transport
#isic4923 Freight transport by road
#isic4930 Transport via pipeline
#isic5011 Sea and coastal passenger water transport
#isic5012 Sea and coastal freight water transport
#isic5021 Inland passenger water transport
#isic5022 Inland freight water transport
#isic5110 Passenger air transport
#isic5120 Warehousing and storage
#isic5221 Service activities incidental to land transportation
#isic5222 Service activities incidental to water transportation
#isic5223 Service activities incidental to air transportation
#isic5224 Cargo handling
#isic5229 Other transportation support activities
#isic5310 Postal activities
#isic5320 Courier activities

ISIC I - Accommodation and food service activities

The ISIC section I - Accommodation and food service activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic5510 Short term accommodation activities
#isic5520 Camping grounds, recreational vehicle parks and trailer parks
#isic5590 Other accommodation
#isic5610 Restaurants and mobile food service activities
#isic5621 Event catering
#isic5629 Other food service activities
#isic5630 Beverage serving activities

ISIC J - Information and communication

The ISIC section J - Information and communication contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic5811 Book publishing
#isic5812 Publishing of directories and mailing lists
#isic5813 Publishing of newspapers, journals and periodicals
#isic5819 Other publishing activities
#isic5820 Software publishing
#isic5911 Motion picture, video and television programme production activities
#isic5912 Motion picture, video and television programme post-production activities
#isic5913 Motion picture, video and television programme distribution activities
#isic5919 Motion picture projection activities
#isic5920 Sound recording and music publishing activities
#isic6010 Radio broadcasting
#isic6020 Television programming and broadcasting activities
#isic6110 Wired telecommunications activities
#isic6120 Wireless telecommunications activities
#isic6130 Satellite telecommunications activities
#isic6190 Other telecommunications activities
#isic6201 Computer programming activities
#isic6202 Computer consultancy and computer facilities management activities
#isic6209 Other information technology and computer service activities
#isic6311 Data processing, hosting and related activities
#isic6312 Web portals
#isic6391 News agency activities
#isic6399 Other information service activities n.e.c.

ISIC K - Financial and insurance activities

The ISIC section K - Financial and insurance activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic6411 Central banking
#isic6419 Other monetary intermediation
#isic6420 Activities of holding companies
#isic6430 Trusts, funds and similar financial entities
#isic6491 Financial leasing
#isic6492 Other credit granting
#isic6499 Other financial service activities, except insurance and pension funding activities, n.e.c.
#isic6511 Life insurance
#isic6512 Non-life insurance
#isic6520 Reinsurance
#isic6530 Pension funding
#isic6611 Administration of financial markets
#isic6612 Security and commodity contracts brokerage
#isic6619 Other activities auxiliary to financial service activities
#isic6621 Risk and damage evaluation
#isic6622 Activities of insurance agents and brokers
#isic6629 Other activities auxiliary to insurance and pension funding
#isic6630 Fund management activities

ISIC L - Real estate activities

The ISIC section L - Real estate activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic6810 Real estate activities with own or leased property
#isic6820 Real estate activities on a fee or contract basis

ISIC M - Professional, scientific and technical activities

The ISIC section M - Professional, scientific and technical activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic6910 Legal activities
#isic6920 Accounting, bookkeeping and auditing activities; tax consultancy
#isic7010 Activities of head offices
#isic7020 Management consultancy activities
#isic7110 Architectural and engineering activities and related technical consultancy
#isic7120 Technical testing and analysis
#isic7210 Research and experimental development on natural sciences and engineering
#isic7220 Research and experimental development on social sciences and humanities
#isic7310 Advertising
#isic7320 Market research and public opinion polling
#isic7410 Specialized design activities
#isic7420 Photographic activities
#isic7490 Other professional, scientific and technical activities n.e.c.
#isic7500 Veterinary activities

ISIC N - Administrative and support service activities

The ISIC section N - Administrative and support service activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic7710 Renting and leasing of motor vehicles
#isic7721 Renting and leasing of recreational and sports goods
#isic7722 Renting of video tapes and disks
#isic7729 Renting and leasing of other personal and household goods
#isic7730 Renting and leasing of other machinery, equipment and tangible goods
#isic7740 Leasing of intellectual property and similar products, except copyrighted works
#isic7810 Activities of employment placement agencies
#isic7820 Temporary employment agency activities
#isic7830 Other human resources provision
#isic7911 Travel agency activities
#isic7912 Tour operator activities
#isic7990 Other reservation service and related activities
#isic8010 Private security activities
#isic8020 Security systems service activities
#isic8030 Investigation activities
#isic8110 Combined facilities support activities
#isic8121 General cleaning of buildings
#isic8129 Other building and industrial cleaning activities
#isic8130 Landscape care and maintenance service activities
#isic8211 Combined office administrative service activities
#isic8219 Photocopying, document preparation and other specialized office support activities
#isic8220 Activities of call centres
#isic8230 Organization of conventions and trade shows
#isic8291 Activities of collection agencies and credit bureaus
#isic8292 Packaging activities
#isic8299 Other business support service activities n.e.c.

ISIC O - Public administration and defence; compulsory social security

The ISIC section O - Public administration and defence; compulsory social security contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic8411 General public administration activities
#isic8412 Regulation of the activities of providing health care, education, cultural services
  and other social services and other social services, excluding social security
#isic8413 Regulation of and contribution to more efficient operation of businesses
#isic8421 Foreign affairs
#isic8422 Defence activities
#isic8423 Public order and safety activities
#isic8430 Compulsory social security activities

ISIC P - Education

The ISIC section P - Education contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic8510 Pre-primary and primary education
#isic8521 General secondary education
#isic8522 Technical and vocational secondary education
#isic8530 Higher education
#isic8541 Sports and recreation education
#isic8542 Cultural education
#isic8549 Other education n.e.c.
#isic8550 Educational support activities

ISIC Q - Human health and social work activities

The ISIC section Q - Human health and social work activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic8610 Hospital activities
#isic8620 Medical and dental practice activities
#isic8690 Other human health activities
#isic8710 Residential nursing care facilities
#isic8720 Residential care activities for mental retardation, mental health and substance abuse
#isic8730 Residential care activities for the elderly and disabled
#isic8790 Other residential care activities
#isic8810 Social work activities without accommodation for the elderly and disabled
#isic8890 Other social work activities without accommodation

ISIC R - Arts, entertainment and recreation

The ISIC section R - Arts, entertainment and recreation contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic9000 Creative, arts and entertainment activities
#isic9101 Library and archives activities
#isic9102 Museums activities and operation of historical sites and buildings
#isic9103 Botanical and zoological gardens and nature reserves activities
#isic9200 Gambling and betting activities
#isic9311 Operation of sports facilities
#isic9312 Activities of sports clubs
#isic9319 Other sports activities
#isic9321 Activities of amusement parks and theme parks
#isic9329 Other amusement and recreation activities n.e.c.

ISIC S - Other service activities

The ISIC section S - Other service activities contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic9411 Activities of business and employers membership organizations
#isic9412 Activities of professional membership organizations
#isic9420 Activities of trade unions
#isic9491 Activities of religious organizations
#isic9492 Activities of political organizations
#isic9499 Activities of other membership organizations n.e.c.
#isic9511 Repair of computers and peripheral equipment
#isic9512 Repair of communication equipment
#isic9521 Repair of consumer electronics
#isic9522 Repair of household appliances and home and garden equipment
#isic9523 Repair of footwear and leather goods
#isic9524 Repair of furniture and home furnishings
#isic9529 Repair of other personal and household goods
#isic9601 Washing and (dry-) cleaning of textile and fur products
#isic9602 Hairdressing and other beauty treatment
#isic9603 Funeral and related activities
#isic9609 Other personal service activities n.e.c.

ISIC T - Activities of households

The ISIC section T - Activities of households contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic9700 Activities of households as employers of domestic personnel
#isic9810 Undifferentiated goods-producing activities of private households for own use
#isic9820 Undifferentiated service-producing activities of private households for own use

ISIC U - Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies

The ISIC section U - Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies contains the classes in the below table.

isic tag Class name
#isic9900 Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies

Annex 4 - Central Product Classification (CPC)

CPC is the abbreviation of Central Product Classification. The Central Product Classification (CPC) constitutes a complete product classification covering goods and services. It serves as an international standard for assembling and tabulating all kinds of data requiring product detail, including industrial production, national accounts, service industries, domestic and foreign commodity trade, international trade in services, balance of payments, consumption and price statistics.

At the website of the United Nations Statistics Division there is an English pdf document of 600 pages without bookmarks. It defines the product classes and describes by which ISIC classes products or services are produced. Also the correspondence to the Harmonized System used by customs is described. The below table lists the ten product sections. There is a chapter for each CPC section that lists divisions and key groups. The online Ens Dictionary CPC chapter contains the definitions and ISIC correspondences for each CPC section, division, group and class. Each chapter includes the link to the CPC Section page of the Ens Dictionary.

#tagcoding CPC division or group
#cpc0 Agriculture, forestry and fishery products
#cpc1 Ores and minerals; electricity, gas and water
#cpc2 Food products, beverages and tobacco; textiles, apparel and leather products
#cpc3 Other transportable goods, except metal products, machinery and equipment
#cpc4 Metal products, machinery and equipment
#cpc5 Constructions and construction services
#cpc6 Distributive trade services; accommodation, food and beverage serving services; transport services; and electricity, …
#cpc7 Financial and related services; real estate services; and rental and leasing services
#cpc8 Business and production services
#cpc9 Community, social and personal services

CPC 0 - Agriculture, forestry and fishery products

The CPC section A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc01 Products of agriculture, horticulture and market gardening
#cpc011 Cereals
#cpc012 Vegetables
#cpc013 Fruits and nuts
#cpc014 Oilseeds and oleaginous fruits
#cpc015 Edible roots and tubers with high starch or inulin content
#cpc016 Stimulant, spice and aromatic crops
#cpc017 Pulses (dried leguminous vegetables)
#cpc018 Sugar crops
#cpc019 Forage products; fibre crops; plants used in perfumery, pharmacy, or for insecticidal, fungicidal or similar purposes;
#cpc02 Live animals and animal products (excluding meat)
#cpc021 Live animals
#cpc022 Raw milk
#cpc023 Eggs of hens or other birds in shell, fresh
#cpc024 Reproductive materials of animals
#cpc029 Other animal products
#cpc03 Forestry and logging products
#cpc031 Wood in the rough
#cpc032 Non-wood forest products
#cpc04 Fish and other fishing products
#cpc041 Fish, live, not for human consumption
#cpc042 Fish live, fresh or chilled for human consumption
#cpc043 Crustaceans, live, fresh or chilled
#cpc044 Molluscs live, fresh or chilled
#cpc045 Other aquatic invertebrates, live, fresh or chilled
#cpc049 Other aquatic plants and animals

CPC 1 - Ores and minerals; electricity, gas and water

The CPC section 1 - Ores and minerals; electricity, gas and water includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division, group or class
#cpc11 Coal and peat
#cpc110 Coal and peat
#cpc1101 Hard coal
#cpc1102 Patent fuel and similar solid fuels manufactured from hard coal
#cpc1103 Brown coal
#cpc1104 Brown coal briquettes and similar solid fuels manufactured from brown coal
#cpc1105 Peat
#cpc12 Crude petroleum and natural gas
#cpc120 Crude petroleum and natural gas
#cpc1201 Crude petroleum and natural gas
#cpc1202 Natural gas, liquefied or in the gaseous state
#cpc1203 Bituminous or oil shale and tar sands
#cpc13 Uranium and thorium ores and concentrates
#cpc130 Uranium and thorium ores and concentrates
#cpc14 Metal ores
#cpc141 Iron ores and concentrates, other than roasted iron pyrites
#cpc142 Non-ferrous metal ores and concentrates (other than uranium or thorium ores and concentrates)
#cpc15 Stone, sand and clay
#cpc151 Monumental or building stone
#cpc152 Gypsum; anhydrite; limestone flux; limestone and other calcareous stone, of a kind used for the manufacture of lime or cement
#cpc153 Sands, pebbles, gravel, broken or crushed stone, natural bitumen and asphalt
#cpc154 Clays
#cpc16 Other minerals
#cpc161 Chemical and fertilizer minerals
#cpc162 Salt and pure sodium chloride; sea water
#cpc163 Precious and semi-precious stones; pumice stone; emery; natural abrasives; other minerals
#cpc17 Electricity, town gas, steam and hot water
#cpc171 Electrical energy
#cpc172 Coal gas, water gas, producer gas and similar gases, other than petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons
#cpc173 Steam and hot water
#cpc174 Ice and snow
#cpc18 Natural water
#cpc180 Natural water

CPC 2 - Food products, beverages and tobacco; textiles, apparel and leather products

The CPC section 2 - Food products, beverages and tobacco; textiles, apparel and leather products includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc21 Meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, oils and fats
#cpc211 Meat and meat products
#cpc212 Prepared and preserved fish, crustaceans, molluscs and other aquatic invertebrates
#cpc213 Prepared and preserved vegetables, pulses and potatoes
#cpc214 Prepared and preserved fruits and nuts
#cpc215 Animal fats
#cpc216 Vegetable oils
#cpc217 Margarine and similar preparations
#cpc218 Cotton linters
#cpc219 Oil-cake and other residues resulting from the extraction of vegetable fats or oils; flours and meals of oil seeds oleaginous fruits, except those of mustard; vegetable waxes, except triglycerides; degras; residues resulting from the treatment of fatty substances or animal or vegetable waxes
#cpc22 Dairy products and egg products
#cpc221 Processed liquid milk, cream and whey
#cpc222 Other dairy products
#cpc223 Eggs, in shell, preserved or cooked
#cpc23 Grain mill products, starches and starch products; other food products
#cpc231 Grain mill products
#cpc232 Starches and starch products; sugars and sugar syrups n.e.c.
#cpc233 Preparations used in animal feeding; lucerne (alfalfa) meal and pellets
#cpc234 Bakery products
#cpc235 Sugar and molasses
#cpc236 Cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery
#cpc237 Macaroni, noodles, couscous and similar farinaceous products
#cpc239 Food products n.e.c.
#cpc24 Beverages
#cpc241 Ethyl alcohol; spirits, liqueurs and other spirituous beverages
#cpc242 Wines
#cpc243 Malt liquors and malt
#cpc244 Soft drinks; bottled mineral waters
#cpc25 Tobacco products
#cpc250 Tobacco products
#cpc26 Yarn and thread; woven and tufted textile fabrics
#cpc261 Natural textile fibres prepared for spinning
#cpc262 Man-made textile staple fibres processed for spinning
#cpc263 Textile yarn and thread of natural fibres
#cpc264 Textile yarn and thread of man-made filaments or staple fibres
#cpc265 Woven fabrics (except special fabrics) of natural fibres other than cotton
#cpc266 Woven fabrics (except special fabrics) of cotton
#cpc267 Woven fabrics (except special fabrics) of man-made filaments and staple fibres
#cpc268 Special fabrics
#cpc27 Textile articles other than apparel
#cpc271 Made-up textile articles
#cpc272 Carpets and other textile floor coverings
#cpc273 Twine, cordage, ropes and cables and articles thereof (including netting)
#cpc279 Textiles n.e.c.
#cpc28 Knitted or crocheted fabrics; wearing apparel
#cpc281 Knitted or crocheted fabrics
#cpc282 Wearing apparel, except fur apparel
#cpc283 Tanned or dressed furskins and artificial fur; articles thereof (except headgear)
#cpc29 Leather and leather products; footwear
#cpc291 Tanned or dressed leather; composition leather
#cpc292 Luggage, handbags and the like; saddlery and harness; other articles of leather
#cpc293 Footwear, with outer soles and uppers of rubber or plastics, or with uppers of leather or textile materials, other than sports and special footwear
#cpc294 Sports footwear, except skating boots
#cpc295 Other footwear, except asbestos footwear, orthopaedic footwear and skating boots
#cpc296 Parts of footwear; removable insoles, heel cushions and similar articles; gaiters, leggings and similar articles, and parts thereof

CPC 3 - Other transportable goods, except metal products, machinery and equipment

The CPC section 3 - Other transportable goods, except metal products, machinery and equipment includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc31 Products of wood, cork, straw and plaiting materials
#cpc311 Wood, sawn or chipped lengthwise, sliced or peeled, of a thickness exceeding 6 mm; railway or tramway sleepers (cross-ties) of wood, not impregnated
#cpc312 Wood continuously shaped along any of its edges or faces; wood wool; wood flour; wood in chips or particles
#cpc313 Wood in the rough, treated with paint, stains, creosote or other preservatives; railway or tramway sleepers (cross-ties) of wood, impregnated; hoopwood, split poles, wooden sticks and the like
#cpc314 Boards and panels
#cpc315 Veneer sheets; sheets for plywood; densified wood
#cpc316 Builders’ joinery and carpentry of wood (including cellular wood panels, assembled parquet panels, shingles and shakes
#cpc317 Packing cases, boxes, crates, drums and similar packings, of wood; cable-drums of wood; pallets, box pallets and other load boards, of wood; casks, barrels, vats, tubs and other coopers’ products and parts thereof, of wood (including staves)
#cpc319 Other products of wood; articles of cork, plaiting materials and straw
#cpc32 Pulp, paper and paper products; printed matter and related articles
#cpc321 Pulp, paper and paperboard
#cpc322 Books, in print
#cpc323 Newspapers and periodicals, daily, in print
#cpc324 Newspapers and periodicals, other than daily, in print
#cpc325 Printed maps; music, printed or in manuscript; postcards, greeting cards, pictures and plans
#cpc326 Stamps, cheque forms, banknotes, stock certificates, brochures and leaflets, advertising material and other printed matter
#cpc327 Registers, account books, notebooks, letter pads, diaries and similar articles, blotting-pads, binders, file covers, forms and other articles of stationery, of paper or paperboard
#cpc328 Composed type, prepared printing plates or cylinders, impressed lithographic stones or other impressed media for use in printing
#cpc33 Coke oven products; refined petroleum products; nuclear fuel
#cpc331 Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat; retort carbon
#cpc332 Tar distilled from coal, from lignite or from peat, and other mineral tars
#cpc333 Petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous materials, other than crude; preparations n.e.c. containing by weight
#cpc3331 Motor gasoline and aviation gasoline
#cpc3332 Gasolene-type jet fuel
#cpc3333 Naphtha
#cpc3334 Kerosenes
#cpc3335 White spirit and special boiling point industrial spirits
#cpc3336 Gas oil
#cpc3337 Fuel oils n.e.c.
#cpc3338 Lubricants
#cpc3339 Other petroleum oils n.e.c.
#cpc334 Petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons, except natural gas
#cpc335 Petroleum jelly; paraffin wax, micro- crystalline petroleum wax, slack wax, ozokerite, lignite wax, peat wax, other mineral waxes, and similar products; petroleum coke, petroleum bitumen and other residues of petroleum oils or of oils obtained from bituminous materials
#cpc336 Radioactive elements and isotopes and compounds; alloys, dispersions, ceramic products and mixtures containing these elements, isotopes or compounds; radioactive residues
#cpc337 Fuel elements (cartridges), for or of nuclear reactors
#cpc34 Basic chemicals
#cpc341 Basic organic chemicals
#cpc342 Basic inorganic chemicals n.e.c.
#cpc343 Tanning or dyeing extracts; tannins and their derivatives; colouring matter n.e.c.
#cpc344 Activated natural mineral products; animal black; tall oil; terpenic oils produced by the treatment of coniferous woods; crude dipentene; crude para-cymene; pine oil; rosin and resin acids, and derivatives thereof; rosin spirit and rosin oils; rum gums; wood tar; wood tar oils; wood creosote; wood naphtha; vegetable pitch; brewers’ pitch
#cpc345 Miscellaneous basic chemical products
#cpc346 Fertilizers and pesticides
#cpc347 Plastics in primary forms
#cpc348 Synthetic rubber and factice derived from oils, and mixtures thereof with natural rubber and similar natural gums,in primary forms or in plates, sheets or strip
#cpc35 Other chemical products; man-made fibres
#cpc351 Paints and varnishes and related products; artists’ colours; ink
#cpc352 Pharmaceutical products
#cpc353 Soap, cleaning preparations, perfumes and toilet preparations
#cpc354 Chemical products n.e.c.
#cpc355 Man-made fibres
#cpc36 Rubber and plastics products
#cpc361 Rubber tyres and tubes
#cpc362 Other rubber products
#cpc363 Semi-manufactures of plastics
#cpc364 Packaging products of plastics
#cpc369 Other plastics products
#cpc37 Glass and glass products and other non-metallic products n.e.c.
#cpc371 Glass and glass products
#cpc372 Non-structural ceramic ware
#cpc373 Refractory products and structural non-refractory clay products
#cpc374 Plaster, lime and cement
#cpc375 Articles of concrete, cement and plaster
#cpc376 Monumental or building stone and articles thereof
#cpc379 Other non-metallic mineral products n.e.c.
#cpc38 Furniture; other transportable goods n.e.c.
#cpc381 Furniture
#cpc382 Jewellery and related articles
#cpc383 Musical instruments
#cpc384 Sports goods
#cpc385 Games and toys
#cpc386 Roundabouts, swings, shooting galleries and other fairground amusements
#cpc387 Prefabricated buildings
#cpc389 Other manufactured articles n.e.c.
#cpc39 Wastes or scraps
#cpc391 Wastes from food and tobacco industry
#cpc392 Non-metal wastes or scraps
#cpc393 Metal wastes or scraps
#cpc399 Other wastes and scraps

CPC 4 - Metal products, machinery and equipment

The CPC section 4 - Metal products, machinery and equipment includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc41 Basic metals
#cpc411 Basic iron and steel
#cpc412 Products of iron or steel
#cpc413 Basic precious metals and metals clad with precious metals
#cpc414 Copper, nickel, aluminium, alumina, lead, zinc and tin, unwrought
#cpc415 Semi-finished products of copper, nickel, aluminium, lead, zinc and tin or their alloys
#cpc416 Other non-ferrous metals and articles thereof (including waste and scrap of some metals); cermets and articles thereof
#cpc42 Fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
#cpc421 Structural metal products and parts thereof
#cpc422 Tanks, reservoirs and containers of iron, steel or aluminium
#cpc423 Steam generators, (except central heating boilers) and parts thereof
#cpc429 Other fabricated metal products
#cpc43 General-purpose machinery
#cpc431 Engines and turbines and parts thereof
#cpc432 Pumps, compressors, hydraulic and pneumatic power engines, and valves, and parts thereof
#cpc433 Bearings, gears, gearing and driving elements, and parts thereof
#cpc434 Ovens and furnace burners and parts thereof
#cpc435 Lifting and handling equipment and parts thereof
#cpc439 Other general-purpose machinery and parts thereof
#cpc44 Special-purpose machinery
#cpc441 Agricultural or forestry machinery and parts thereof
#cpc442 Machine-tools and parts and accessories thereof
#cpc443 Machinery for metallurgy and parts thereof
#cpc444 Machinery for mining, quarrying and construction, and parts thereof
#cpc445 Machinery for food, beverage and tobacco processing, and parts thereof
#cpc446 Machinery for textile, apparel and leather production, and parts thereof
#cpc447 Weapons and ammunition and parts thereof 4471
#cpc448 Domestic appliances and parts thereof
#cpc449 Other special-purpose machinery and parts thereof
#cpc45 Office, accounting and computing machinery
#cpc451 Office and accounting machinery, and parts and accessories thereof
#cpc452 Computing machinery and parts and accessories thereof
#cpc46 Electrical machinery and apparatus
#cpc461 Electric motors, generators and transformers, and parts thereof
#cpc462 Electricity distribution and control apparatus, and parts thereof
#cpc463 Insulated wire and cable; optical fibre cables
#cpc464 Accumulators, primary cells and primary batteries, and parts thereof
#cpc465 Electric filament or discharge lamps; arc lamps; lighting equipment; parts thereof
#cpc469 Other electrical equipment and parts thereof
#cpc47 Radio, television and communication equipment and apparatus
#cpc471 Electronic valves and tubes; electronic components; parts thereof
#cpc472 Television and radio transmitters; television, video and digital cameras; telephone sets
#cpc473 Radio broadcast and television receivers; apparatus for sound and video recording and reproducing; microphoness, loudspeakers, amplifiers, etc.
#cpc474 Parts for the goods of classes 4721 to 4733 and 4822
#cpc475 Disks, tapes, solid-state non-volatile storage devices and other media, not recorded
#cpc476 Audio, video and other disks, tapes and other physical media, recorded
#cpc478 Packaged software
#cpc479 Cards with magnetic strips or chip
#cpc48 Medical appliances, precision and optical instruments, watches and clocks
#cpc481 Medical and surgical equipment and orthopaedic appliances
#cpc482 Instruments and appliances for measuring, checking, testing, navigating and other purposes, , except optical instruments; industrial process control equipment; parts and accessories thereof
#cpc483 Optical instruments and photographic equipment, and parts and accessories thereof
#cpc484 Watches and clocks, and parts thereof
#cpc49 Transport equipment
#cpc491 Motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers; parts and accessories thereof
#cpc492 Bodies (coachwork) for motor vehicles; trailers and semi-trailers; parts and accessories thereof
#cpc493 Ships
#cpc494 Pleasure and sporting boats
#cpc495 Railway and tramway locomotives and rolling stock, and parts thereof
#cpc496 Aircraft and spacecraft, and parts thereof
#cpc499 Other transport equipment and parts thereof

CPC 5 - Constructions and construction services

The CPC section 5 - Constructions and construction services includes the divisions, groups and classes in the below table.

CPC tag *CPC division, group or class
#cpc53 Constructions
#cpc531 Buildings
#cpc5311 Residential buildings
#cpc5312 Non-residential buildings
#cpc532 Civil engineering works
#cpc5321 Highways (except elevated highways), streets, roads, railways and airfield runways
#cpc5322 Bridges, elevated highways and tunnels
#cpc5323 Harbours, waterways, dams, irrigation and other waterworks
#cpc5324 Long-distance pipelines, communication and power lines (cables)
#cpc5325 Local pipelines and cables and related works
#cpc5326 Mines and industrial plants
#cpc5327 Outdoor sport and recreation facilities
#cpc5329 Other civil engineering works
#cpc54 Construction services
#cpc541 General construction services of buildings
#cpc542 General construction services of civil engineering works
#cpc543 Site preparation services
#cpc544 Assembly and erection of prefabricated constructions
#cpc545 Special trade construction services
#cpc546 Installation services
#cpc547 Building completion and finishing services

CPC 6 - Distributive trade services; accommodation, food and beverage serving services; transport services; and electricity, gas and water distribution services

The CPC section 6 - Distributive trade services; accommodation, food and beverage serving services; transport services; and electricity, gas and water distribution services includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc61 Wholesale trade services
#cpc611 Wholesale trade services, except on a fee or contract basis
#cpc612 Wholesale trade services on a fee or contract basis
#cpc62 Retail trade services
#cpc621 Non-specialized store retail trade services
#cpc622 Specialized store retail trade services
#cpc623 Mail order or Internet retail trade services
#cpc624 Other non-store retail trade services
#cpc625 Retail trade services on a fee or contract basis
#cpc63 Accommodation, food and beverage services
#cpc631 Accommodation services for visitors
#cpc632 Other accommodation services for visitors and others
#cpc633 Food serving services
#cpc634 Beverage serving services
#cpc64 Passenger transport services
#cpc641 Local transport and sightseeing transportation services of passengers
#cpc642 Long-distance transport services of passengers
#cpc65 Freight transport services
#cpc651 Land transport services of freight
#cpc652 Water transport services of freight
#cpc653 Air and space transport services of freight
#cpc66 Rental services of transport vehicles with operators
#cpc660 Rental services of transport vehicles with operators
#cpc67 Supporting transport services
#cpc671 Cargo handling services
#cpc672 Storage and warehousing services
#cpc673 Supporting services for railway transport
#cpc674 Supporting services for road transport
#cpc675 Supporting services for water transport
#cpc676 Supporting services for air or space transport
#cpc679 Other supporting transport services
#cpc68 Postal and courier services
#cpc680 Postal and courier services
#cpc69 Electricity, gas and water distribution (on own account)
#cpc691 Electricity and gas distribution (on own account)
#cpc692 Water distribution (on own account)

The CPC section 7 - Financial and related services; real estate services; and rental and leasing services includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc71 Financial and related services
#cpc711 Financial services, except investment banking, insurance services and pension services
#cpc712 Investment banking services
#cpc713 Insurance and pension services (excluding reinsurance services), except compulsory social security services
#cpc714 Reinsurance services
#cpc715 Services auxiliary to financial services other than to insurance and pensions
#cpc716 Services auxiliary to insurance and pensions
#cpc717 Services of holding financial assets
#cpc72 Real estate services
#cpc721 Real estate services involving own or leased property
#cpc722 Real estate services on a fee or contract basis
#cpc73 Leasing or rental services without operator
#cpc731 Leasing or rental services concerning machinery and equipment without operator
#cpc732 Leasing or rental services concerning other goods
#cpc733 Licensing services for the right to use intellectual property and similar products

CPC 8 - Business and production services

The CPC section 8 - Business and production services includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc81 Research and development services
#cpc811 Research and experimental development services in natural sciences and engineering
#cpc812 Research and experimental development services in social sciences and humanities
#cpc813 Interdisciplinary research and experimental development services
#cpc814 Research and development originals
#cpc82 Legal and accounting services
#cpc821 Legal services
#cpc822 Accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services
#cpc823 Tax consultancy and preparation services
#cpc824 Insolvency and receivership services
#cpc83 Professional, technical and business services (except research, development, legal and accounting services)
#cpc831 Management consulting and management services; information technology services
#cpc832 Architectural services, urban and land planning and landscape architectural services
#cpc833 Engineering services
#cpc834 Scientific and other technical services
#cpc835 Veterinary services
#cpc836 Advertising services and provision of advertising space or time
#cpc837 Market research and public opinion polling services
#cpc838 Photography services and photographic processing services
#cpc839 Other professional, technical and business services
#cpc84 Telecommunications, broadcasting and information supply services
#cpc841 Telephony and other telecommunications services
#cpc842 Internet telecommunications services
#cpc843 On-line content
#cpc844 News agency services
#cpc845 Library and archive services
#cpc846 Broadcasting, programming and programme distribution services
#cpc85 Support services
#cpc851 Employment services
#cpc852 Investigation and security services
#cpc853 Cleaning services
#cpc854 Packaging services
#cpc855 Travel arrangement, tour operator and related services
#cpc859 Other support services
#cpc86 Support and operation services to agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing, mining and utilities
#cpc861 Support and operation services to agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing
#cpc862 Support and operation services to mining
#cpc863 Support and operation services to electricity, gas and water distribution
#cpc87 Maintenance, repair and installation (except construction) services
#cpc871 Maintenance and repair services of fabricated metal products, machinery and equipment
#cpc872 Repair services of other goods
#cpc873 Installation services (other than construction)
#cpc88 Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others
#cpc881 Food, beverage and tobacco manufacturing services
#cpc882 Textile, wearing apparel and leather manufacturing services
#cpc883 Wood and paper manufacturing services
#cpc884 Petroleum, chemical and pharmaceutical product manufacturing services
#cpc885 Rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral product manufacturing services
#cpc886 Basic metal manufacturing services
#cpc887 Fabricated metal product, machinery and equipment manufacturing services
#cpc888 Transport equipment manufacturing services
#cpc889 Other manufacturing services; publishing, printing and reproduction services; materials recovery services
#cpc89 Other manufacturing services; publishing, printing and reproduction services; materials recovery services
#cpc891 Publishing, printing and reproduction services
#cpc892 Moulding, pressing, stamping, extruding and similar plastic manufacturing services
#cpc893 Casting, forging, stamping and similar metal manufacturing services
#cpc894 Materials recovery (recycling) services, on a fee or contract basis

CPC 9 - Community, social and personal services

The CPC section 9 - Community, social and personal services includes the divisions and groups in the below table.

CPC tag CPC division or group
#cpc91 Public administration and other services provided to the community as a whole; compulsory social security services
#cpc911 Administrative services of the government
#cpc912 Public administrative services provided to the community as a whole
#cpc913 Administrative services related to compulsory social security schemes
#cpc92 Education services
#cpc921 Pre-primary education services
#cpc922 Primary education services
#cpc923 Secondary education services
#cpc924 Post-secondary non-tertiary education services
#cpc925 Tertiary education services
#cpc929 Other education and training services and educational support services
#cpc93 Human health and social care services
#cpc931 Human health services
#cpc932 Residential care services for the elderly and disabled
#cpc933 Other social services with accommodation
#cpc934 Social services without accommodation for the elderly and disabled
#cpc935 Other social services without accommodation
#cpc94 Sewage and waste collection, treatment and disposal and other environmental protection services
#cpc941 Sewerage, sewage treatment and septic tank cleaning services
#cpc942 Waste collection services
#cpc943 Waste treatment and disposal services
#cpc944 Remediation services
#cpc945 Sanitation and similar services
#cpc949 Other environmental protection services n.e.c.
#cpc95 Services of membership organizations
#cpc951 Services furnished by business, employers and professional organizations
#cpc952 Services furnished by trade unions
#cpc959 Services furnished by other membership organizations
#cpc96 Recreational, cultural and sporting services
#cpc961 Audiovisual and related services
#cpc962 Performing arts and other live entertainment event presentation and promotion services
#cpc963 Services of performing and other artists
#cpc964 Museum and preservation services
#cpc965 Sports and recreational sports services
#cpc966 Services of athletes and related support services
#cpc969 Other amusement and recreational services
#cpc97 Other services
#cpc971 Washing, cleaning and dyeing services
#cpc972 Beauty and physical well-being services
#cpc973 Funeral, cremation and undertaking services
#cpc979 Other miscellaneous services
#cpc98 Domestic services
#cpc980 Domestic services
#cpc99 Services provided by extraterritorial organizations and bodies
#cpc990 Services provided by extraterritorial organizations and bodies

Annex 5 - The Sustainable Development Goals and Targets

The Sustainable development goals which were approved by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2015 are usually abbreviated as SDGs, with hashtag #SDGs. The full definition of each of the 17 goals and 169 targets is taken from the UN resolution document Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (UN General Assembly, 2015).

The goals with their ‘global’ #SDGs coding hashtag are listed in table SDGs. Each goal has a number of targets. The targets for each goal are listed in the following sections. For each target an #sdt coding hashtag is included in the table per goal.

SDG tag goal description
#SDG1 End poverty in all its forms everywhere
#SDG2 End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture
#SDG3 Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
#SDG4 Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all
#SDG5 Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
#SDG6 Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
#SDG7 Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all
#SDG8 Promote sustained, inclusive & sustainable economic growth, full & productive employment & decent work for all
#SDG9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
#SDG10 Reduce inequality within and among countries
#SDG11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
#SDG12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
#SDG13 Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
#SDG14 Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
#SDG15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
#SDG16 Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels
#SDG17 Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

SDG1 - End poverty in all its forms everywhere

The sustainable development goal #SDG1 - End poverty in all its forms everywhere contains the targets in the below table. For each target there is a unique coding hashtag such as #sdt011, yet also hashtags such as #sdt11 are being used.

SDT tag target description
#SDT011 or #SDT11 By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1
#SDT012 or #SDT12 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
#SDT013 or #SDT13 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable
#SDT014 or #SDT14 By 2030 ensure that all men and women, particularly the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership, and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology, and financial services including microfinance
#SDT015 or #SDT15 By 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters
#SDT01a or #SDT1a Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular LDCs, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions
#SDT01b or #SDT1b Create sound policy frameworks, at national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies to support accelerated investments in poverty eradication actions

SDG2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture

The sustainable development goal #SDG2 - End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture includes the targets in the below table.

SDT tag target description
#SDT021 or #SDT21 By 2030 end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round
#SDT022 or #SDT22 By 2030 end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving by 2025 the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under five years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women, and older persons
#SDT023 or #SDT23 By 2030 double the agricultural productivity and the incomes of small-scale food producers, particularly women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets, and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment
#SDT024 or #SDT24 By 2030 ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality
#SDT025 or #SDT25 By 2020 maintain genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as internationally agreed
#SDT02a or #SDT2a Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development, and plant and livestock gene banks to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular in least developed countries
#SDT02b or #SDT2b Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round
#SDT02c or #SDT2c Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives, and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility

SDG3 - Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

The table below lists the coding hashtags for the targets of sustainable development goal #SDG3 - Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages.

SDT tag target description
#SDT031 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births
#SDT032 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births
#SDT033 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
#SDT034 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well being
#SDT035 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
#SDT036 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
#SDT037 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
#SDT038 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
#SDT039 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination
#SDT03a Strengthen the implementation of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in all countries, as appropriate
#SDT03b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all
#SDT03c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States
#SDT03d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, in particular developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction and management of national and global health risks

SDG4 - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG4 - Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all.

SDT tag target description
#SDT041 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys complete free, equitable and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes
#SDT042 By 2030, ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education so that they are ready for primary education
#SDT043 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university
#SDT044 By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
#SDT045 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations
#SDT046 By 2030, ensure that all youth and a substantial proportion of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy
#SDT047 By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development
#SDT04a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
#SDT04b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries
#SDT04c By 2030, substantially increase the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States

SDG5 - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG5 - Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.

SDT tag target description
#SDT051 End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
#SDT052 Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
#SDT053 Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
#SDT054 Recognize and value unpaid care and domestic work through the provision of public services, infrastructure and social protection policies and the promotion of shared responsibility within the household and the family as nationally appropriate
#SDT055 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life
#SDT056 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences
#SDT05a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws
#SDT05b Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women
#SDT05c Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels

SDG6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG6 - Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.

SDT tag target description
#SDT061 By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
#SDT062 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations
#SDT063 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally
#SDT064 By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity
#SDT065 By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate
#SDT066 By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
#SDT06a By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies
#SDT06b Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management

SDG7 - Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG7 - Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.

SDT tag target description
#SDT071 By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
#SDT072 By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
#SDT073 By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
#SDT07a By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology
#SDT07b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries and small island developing States

SDG8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG8 - Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all.

SDT tag target description
#SDT081 Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries
#SDT082 Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-valueadded and labour-intensive sectors
#SDT083 Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services
#SDT084 Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead
#SDT085 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value
#SDT086 By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
#SDT087 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
#SDT088 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment
#SDT089 By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
#SDT810 Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all
#SDT08a Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
#SDT08b By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization

SDG9 - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG9 - Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation.

SDT tag target description
#SDT091 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
#SDT092 Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries
#SDT093 Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets
#SDT094 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities
#SDT095 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending
#SDT09a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
#SDT09b Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities
#SDT09c Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020

SDG10 - Reduce inequality within and among countries

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG10 - Reduce inequality within and among countries.

SDT tag target description
#SDT101 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average
#SDT102 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
#SDT103 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
#SDT104 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
#SDT105 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
#SDT106 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
#SDT107 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
#SDT10a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
#SDT10b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
#SDT10c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

SDG11 - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG11 - Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.

SDT tag target description
#SDT111 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
#SDT112 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
#SDT113 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
#SDT114 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
#SDT115 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
#SDT116 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
#SDT117 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities
#SDT11a Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning
#SDT11b By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
#SDT11c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

SDG12- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal SDG12- Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.

SDT tag target description
#SDT121 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries
#SDT122 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources
#SDT123 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses
#SDT124 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
#SDT125 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse
#SDT126 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle
#SDT127 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities
#SDT128 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature
#SDT12a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production
#SDT12b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products
#SDT12c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

SDG13 - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG13 - Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts.

SDT tag target description
#SDT131 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
#SDT132 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning
#SDT133 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning
#SDT13a Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the UNFCCC to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
#SDT13b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

SDG14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG14 - Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.

SDT tag target description
#SDT141 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
#SDT142 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
#SDT143 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels
#SDT144 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
#SDT145 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
#SDT146 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
#SDT147 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism
#SDT14a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries
#SDT14b Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets
#SDT14c Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want

SDG15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG15 - Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

SDT tag target description
#SDT151 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
#SDT152 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
#SDT153 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
#SDT154 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development
#SDT155 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity, and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
#SDT156 Ensure fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources
#SDT157 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products
#SDT158 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
#SDT159 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
#SDT15a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainable use biodiversity and ecosystems
#SDT15b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation
#SDT15c Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

SDG16 - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development

Targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG16 - Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.

SDT tag target description
#SDT161 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
#SDT162 End abuse, exploitations, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
#SDT163 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
#SDT164 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime
#SDT165 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
#SDT166 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
#SDT167 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
#SDT168 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
#SDT169 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
#SDT1610 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
#SDT16a Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
#SDT16b Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

SDG17 - Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

The targets and coding hashtags for sustainable development goal #SDG17 - Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

SDT tag target description
#SDT171 Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection
#SDT172 Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including the commitment by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent ODA/GNI to developing countries and 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries; ODA providers are encouraged to consider setting a target to provide at least 0.20 per cent of ODA/GNI to least developed countries
#SDT173 Mobilize additional financial resources for developing countries from multiple sources
#SDT174 Assist developing countries in attaining long-term debt sustainability through coordinated policies aimed at fostering debt financing, debt relief and debt restructuring, as appropriate, and address the external debt of highly indebted poor countries to reduce debt distress
#SDT175 Adopt and implement investment promotion regimes for least developed countries
#SDT176 Enhance North-South, South-South and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology and innovation and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, in particular at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism
#SDT177 Promote the development, transfer, dissemination and diffusion of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed
#SDT178 Fully operationalize the technology bank and science, technology and innovation capacity-building mechanism for least developed countries by 2017 and enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology
#SDT179 Enhance international support for implementing effective and targeted capacity-building in developing countries to support national plans to implement all the sustainable development goals, including through North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation
#SDT1710 Promote a universal, rules-based, open, non-discriminatory and equitable multilateral trading system under the World Trade Organization, including through the conclusion of negotiations under its Doha Development Agenda
#SDT1711 Significantly increase the exports of developing countries, in particular with a view to doubling the least developed countries’ share of global exports by 2020
#SDT1712 Realize timely implementation of duty-free and quota-free market access on a lasting basis for all least developed countries, consistent with World Trade Organization decisions, including by ensuring that preferential rules of origin applicable to imports from least developed countries are transparent and simple, and contribute to facilitating market access
#SDT1713 Enhance global macroeconomic stability, including through policy coordination and policy coherence
#SDT1714 Enhance policy coherence for sustainable development
#SDT1715 Respect each country’s policy space and leadership to establish and implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development
#SDT1716 Enhance the global partnership for sustainable development, complemented by multi-stakeholder partnerships that mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, to support the achievement of the sustainable development goals in all countries, in particular developing countries
#SDT1717 Encourage and promote effective public, public-private and civil society partnerships, building on the experience and resourcing strategies of partnerships
#SDT1718 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
#SDT1719 By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of progress on sustainable development that complement gross domestic product, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries

About the author

Jan Goossenaerts is a social media entrepreneur and a business and architecture consultant specialized in aligning ICT and communications solutions to organizational and societal needs. In 2012 he founded Wikinetix which became a finalist in the 2012 Social Media Leadership Awards. In order to catalyse further the instructive and productive use of the internet he launched the Actor Atlas and a number of related social capital wikis: one for the Philippines, Tanzania, Nepal, India, the EU and the US.

Twitter: @collaboratewiki and @ActorAtlas (Actor Atlas)

LinkedIn: Jan Goossenaerts