Master Apache JMeter From load testing to DevOps.
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Master Apache JMeter From load testing to DevOps.

Prefaced by Alexander Podelko

About the Book

Throughout the chapters, you will understand how to create meaningful performance tests, discover the richness of JMeter and learn how to use it efficiently and effectively.

From automatic recording that allows you to gain in productivity and realism in writing your scripts, through correlation that makes your test realistic and reusable across environments, the authors put you on the right track to realize your scalability testing campaigns.

They then explore the different protocols offered by the tool through examples drawn from their professional experiences.

Finally, they show how to integrate the tool into the DevOps approach, create professional reports and exploit the richness of its eco-system to integrate new protocols, enrich its monitoring or leverage its power through the use of the Cloud.

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About the Authors

Antonio Gomes Rodrigues
Antonio Gomes Rodrigues

Antonio Gomes Rodrigues is an expert in the field of application performance for more than 10 years.

His missions led him to work:

  • On the performance of high traffic websites
  • On the performance of an application for brokers
  • On the performance of rich clients, cloud applications, web applications, etc.
  • With various profilers: JProfiler, Yourkit, PerfView, etc.
  • With various APM: Dynatrace, AppDynamics, Introscope, NewRelic, etc.
  • With various load testing tools: JMeter, LoadRunner, etc.
  • In various missions: load tests, implementation of performance strategies, training, performance audits, troubleshooting, etc.

He shares his knowledge of application performance at conferences, on his blog and during technical book reviews.

He is currently a committer and a PMC member of the JMeter project within the Apache Software Foundation.

Philippe Mouawad
Philippe Mouawad

Philippe Mouawad is a technical expert and architect in J2E and Web environments within the company Ubik-Ingenierie.

He has been using JMeter since 2009 as part of performance improvements missions, load testing of intranet or e-commerce websites and trainings on JMeter.

He has been contributing to JMeter since 2009 first through patches and then as a 'committer' and member of Project Management Committee at Apache.

Among his main contributions, the CSS selector Extractor, the Boundary Extractor, the Backend Listener (allowing to interface among others Graphite, InfluxDB or ElasticSearch),

part of the Web reporting feature and the optimization of the performances of the core, its stabilization and various ergonomic improvements, to his credit more than 400 bugs/improvements.

He also contributes to the JMeter-Plugins project, among his contributions are Redis DataSet, Graphs Generator Listener and various patches to different plugins.

He also manages the JMeter Maven Plugin project, he has been managing it since version 2.3.0 ensuring its compatibility with last JMeter releases and improving its

dependencies management and reporting mechanism.

He is currently a committer and a PMC member of the JMeter project within the Apache Software Foundation.

His Apache ID is pmouawad.

He is also a lead developer of the Ubik Load Pack solution, a set of Enterprise Plugins which provides support for protocols that are not natively supported by JMeter.

Finally, he contributes to the Ubik-Ingenierie blog.


Bruno Demion, better known as Milamber, is a French computer scientist expatriated in Morocco since 2002, currently living in Témara (near Rabat).

He works in a technology consulting and expertise company as a partner, senior technical expert and technical architect.

Through his work and passion for IT, Milamber has strong skills in performance, troubleshooting, security and technical architectures around web technologies.

Since December 2003, he has been working with JMeter to perform load tests in various missions and training courses.

He contributes as much as possible to the JMeter project in his spare time, in particular on the translation into French of the graphical interface, corrections of anomalies as well as some behaviors (proxy https, new results tree, icon bar, etc.).

He is currently a committer, PMC member and the PMC Chair of the Apache JMeter project within the Apache Software Foundation - ASF. He is also an official ASF member. His Apache ID is milamber.

Milamber also has a personal blog with many articles and tutorials on Apache JMeter, some of which inspired this book.


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About the Contributors

Alexander Podelko
Alexander Podelko

Board director for the Computer Measurement Group (CMG), a worldwide organization of performance and capacity management professionals.

Over the last twenty years Alex Podelko supported major performance initiatives for OracleHyperionAetna, and Intel in different roles including performance tester, performance analyst, performance architect, and performance engineer.

Currently he is Consulting Member of Technical Staff at Oracle, responsible for performance testing and tuning of Hyperion (a.k.a. Enterprise Performance Management and Business Intelligence) products. Before specializing in performance, Alex led software development for Rodnik Software.

Having more than thirty years of overall experience in the software industry, he holds a PhD in Computer Science from Gubkin University and an MBA from Bellevue University.

Alex periodically talks and writes about performance-related topics, advocating tearing down silo walls between different groups of performance professionals. He currently serves as a board director for the Computer Measurement Group (CMG), a worldwide organization of performance and capacity management professionals.

Felix Schumacher
Felix Schumacher

Apache JMeter committer, developer and Project Management Committee member

Long term committer in JMeter project and Tomcat.

He has a diploma in mathematics, but found working in IT more appealing.

He really likes to work with open source, as it gives him the ability to dive into the inner workings of those magic things.

Reader Testimonials

Software Testing Magazine
Software Testing Magazine

A must have for every software tester working with JMeter

The book provides an impressive amount of knowledge on how to successfully use JMeter, from your first steps with the tool to its integration in a DevOps approach. ... This book is naturally a must have for every software tester working with JMeter, but it will also provide valuable knowledge and solution to every software tester or developer concerned with the performance of her or his application. Read full review at

Deepak Shetty
Deepak Shetty

Performance Expert and JMeter committer (

This book fills in the details for many of the problems that JMeter users run into - which is practical advice on how to use the various components of the extensible JMeter ecosystem. This book is a very good resource to developers and testers who have some exposure to testing and are now looking to get into the more advanced JMeter features and using tools that JMeter integrates with.

Anthony Gauthier
Anthony Gauthier

Software Developer, Performance Engineer, ElasticSearch backend listener author (

As an active member of the community & a seasoned JMeter user, I believe this book should be a must have for any JMeter user-beginner or expert. As a beginner, it will show you all of what you need to know to successfully establish meaningful test scenarios. As an advanced user, it will be a nice reminder of what really should be in your tests as well as making you discover some JMeter features you've never really used. I highly recommend it to anyone involved in performance testing/engineering.

NaveenKumar Namachivayam
NaveenKumar Namachivayam

Performance test engineer

If you are getting started with JMeter, then this book is for you; if you are already experienced in JMeter, then this book is also for you; Even if you are an expert in JMeter, then also this book is for you. It teaches both: performance testing and engineering concepts clearly with examples. After reading this book, you can load test a website, database, web services, integrate your scripts with your enterprise CI/CD pipeline.

Table of Contents

  • Copyright
  • Presentation of the authors
    • Antonio Gomes Rodrigues
    • Bruno Demion (Milamber)
    • Philippe Mouawad (Philippe M.)
  • About the reviewers
    • Felix Schumacher
  • Preface by Alexander Podelko
    • Alexander Podelko bio
  • Quick start with JMeter
    • Our process
    • Setup JMeter to record our browsing session
    • Configure your browser
    • Save our script
    • Validate our script with only one user
    • Setup our load test and launch it
    • Run our load test and analyze it
  • JMeter overview
    • JMeter overview
    • Types of load tests supported
    • Supported test protocols
    • Reporting
  • Why is it still important to make load test today?
    • Why performance matters?
      • Better user experience
      • Better SEO (Search Engine Optimization)
      • Better conversion rate
      • Reduce cost
    • What has changed in the last years and why it is not enough?
      • Provisionning a server is easiest with Cloud
      • Autoscaling is easy with Cloud/Kubernetes
      • Canary release deployment
      • Blue/Green deployment
      • Feature Flipping allows to quickly disable a faulty feature
      • Design for failure
    • Other reasons why it is still important to make load test today
      • Performance culture
      • Don’t live with Broken Windows
      • Put into production the healthiest application
      • Fine tune as much as possible the architecture and application
      • Understand the weak points of the application
      • Reproduce a performance or multithreading issue detected in production to fix it
      • Give business an idea of future response times when a new application goes live
      • Anticipate Sales period
      • Compare two versions of the same application
      • Confirm/tune the alerting system
      • Validate/improve monitoring (metrics, tools, dashboards, etc.)
      • Find the soft limits of the AWS infrastructure
    • Conclusion
  • Designing a test case
    • Introduction
    • Define your goal
    • Type of load test
      • Performance/Load Test
      • Stress Test
      • Soak/Endurance Test
      • Failover/Resilience Test
      • Spike Test
      • Other
    • Load model
      • Closed model vs Open model
        • Closed model
        • Open model
        • Why is it important to choose the right model?
      • Implementation in JMeter
        • Concurrency user (Closed model)
        • Throughput (Open model)
        • Arrivals rate (Open model)
      • Arrivals rate model
        • Poisson process with Precise Throughput Timer
        • Constant arrival rate with Thread Group
        • Constant arrival rate with Constant Throughput Timer
      • Think time
        • Constant think time with Constant Timer
        • Uniform distribution think time with Uniform Random Timer
        • Gaussian/Normal distribution think time with Gaussian Random Timer
        • Poisson distribution think time with Poisson Random Timer
        • All think time we want with JSR223 Timer
    • Structure of a test case
      • Ramp Up
      • Plateau/Step
      • Ramp Down
      • Example: step load test
    • Identify critical business scenarios to script
      • Frequent
      • Vital
      • Risky
    • How many virtual users do I need?
    • Parameters to take into account when creating a scenario
      • Vary user input
      • Reuse the same values
      • Vary the type of users
      • Vary and adjust think times
      • Adjust the ramp up time
      • Adjust the test duration
      • Error handling
      • User connection type
      • Size of the scenarios
      • Meeting point/rendez-vous
      • Cookie Management
      • Cache Management
    • Conclusion
  • Important concepts in JMeter
    • Scoping
    • Elements execution order
    • How Timers scope works
      • Rule 1: Timers are executed before each sampler in their scope.
      • Rule 2: If there is more than one timer in the scope, all the timers will be processed before the sampler.
      • Control the execution order of Timers
    • How Assertions scope works
      • Rule 1: Assertions are executed after each sampler in their scope or to parent samplers
      • Rule 2: Failed assertions cause the failure of the entire Transaction Controller
      • Rule 3: Assertions can validate main sample and/or sub-samples
      • Rule 4: Be careful with low performing assertions
      • Our advice
    • How properties differ from variables
      • How properties are created
      • How variables are created
      • How ${} differs from ${_P}
  • Preparing the test environment (injectors and tested system)
    • Introduction
    • Setting up the injectors
      • Never host injectors on the same servers as the tested system
      • Calibrating your test
      • Monitor injectors
      • IP Spoofing
        • Setting up IP Spoofing:
      • Use the latest version
      • JMeter memory configuration
      • Avoid load testing behind a proxy
    • Preparation of the tested system
      • A tested environment
      • An environment consistent with the target
      • Datasets
      • Take into account calls to third party services
      • Disable protection systems
      • Isolated environment
      • License Management
      • Monitoring
        • Overhead
        • Metrics
        • Logs/events
        • Instrumentation
        • Sampling
        • Distributed tracing
        • Memory monitoring
        • Thread monitoring
        • Exception monitoring
        • Database monitoring
        • Continuous Profiling/APM
        • Our advice
    • Conclusion
  • Being productive with JMeter
    • Introduction
    • Good practices when recording a script
      • Use the HTTP(S) Test Script Recorder element
      • BlazeMeter Chrome Extension
      • Pre-populate HTTP Request Defaults before recording the script
      • Use Tools / Import from cURL
      • Static Resources
        • Solution 1: Do not take them into account
        • Solution 2: Let JMeter manage them
        • Solution 3: Manage it ourselves
      • Use timeouts
      • Apply a naming convention for transactions/requests
      • Global Assertion
      • Re-Use script parts
      • Recording an HTTPS website
      • Keyboard shortcuts
    • Debugging a script
      • Using View Results Tree
      • Capture errors
      • Debug Sampler
      • jp@gc - Dummy Sampler
      • Log Viewer
      • BlazeMeter Step-by-step Debugger
      • The old-fashioned way in the console
      • Use a third-party tool
    • Finalize a script
      • Change the name of a transaction according to a parameter
      • Share an object between different Thread Groups
      • Get the most out of CSV files
        • The different modes/options of CSV reader
        • CSV file and JSON content
        • Data coming from several CSV files
        • CSV and Groovy
      • Mark a response as an error
      • Using Regular Expression Extractor on content with spaces and multiple lines
      • Execute an action based on the status of the previous one
      • Add headers to our HTTP requests
      • Waiting with While Controller
        • Wait for the end of execution: example 1
        • Wait for the end of execution: example 2
        • Wait for three products to be added to the cart.
        • Exit from While if the last action returns an error.
      • The right Extractor at the right time
      • Handle cookies
    • Conclusion
  • Load Testing a website
    • A bit of theory
    • Set up with JMeter
    • Methodology
    • Put into practice with JMeter
      • Example 1: Simulate realistic load
      • Example 2: Technical tests with Byteman
      • Example 3: Technical tests with JProfiler
      • Example 4: Tricking captchas with a Java Request
    • Conclusion
  • Load Testing web services
    • A few concepts
      • REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services
      • WS-* web services
    • Set up with JMeter
    • Methodology
    • Practice with JMeter
      • SOAP/XML-RPC web-service
      • REST Web-Service: Discussion Forum
      • REST web service: Customer Database
    • Conclusion
  • Load Testing a database server
    • A bit of theory
    • Methodology
    • Setup with JMeter
    • Putting theory into practice with JMeter
      • Example 1: Load test of a database
        • Avoiding duplication using Include Controller
        • Avoiding duplication using Module Controller
      • Example 2: Studying indexes impact on performance
      • Example 3 : ETL
    • Conclusion
  • Load Testing Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) via JMS
    • A bit of theory
      • Asynchronous messages
      • Decoupling
        • Technology decoupling
        • Geographical Decoupling (Location transparency)
        • Time decoupling
      • Back pressure
      • Communication models
      • What is a message composed of?
    • Set up with JMeter
      • Installation of MOM libraries
      • JMS Point-to-Point
        • JMS Resources and JNDI Properties
        • Communication style
        • Priority
        • Use non-persistent delivery mode?
        • JMS Selector
        • Example with Apache ActiveMQ
      • Publish/Subscribe
        • JMS Publisher
        • JMS Subscriber
    • Methodology
    • Put into practice with JMeter
      • Example 1: Test the configuration of a MOM server with point-to-point
      • Example 2: Test the performance of our consumer with JMS Publish/Subscribe
      • Example 3: Testing the configuration of a MOM server with Publish/Subscribe
      • Example 4: Test any MOM
    • Conclusion
  • Performing a load test
    • Introduction
    • Methodology
    • Testing your script with the graphical interface
    • Running your test from the command line
    • Running your test on the command line with Taurus
    • Running your test from Apache Maven
    • Running your test from Jenkins
    • Running your test from Apache Ant
    • Best practices
        • Have well prepared injectors
        • Generate reports at the end of the test
        • Good use of Extractors
          • Regular Expression Extractor
          • XPath Extractor
          • Extractor performances
        • Use Assertions with care
        • Good use of custom scripting
    • Conclusion
  • Visualizing and analyzing the load testing results
    • Introduction
    • Visualizing the results with listeners
      • View Results Tree
        • Sampler result tab
        • Request tab
        • Response data tab
      • Summary Report
      • Aggregate Report
      • Backend Listener
      • Report Dashboard
      • Particularities of the visualization of results for a distributed load test before JMeter 5.0
    • Visualizing the results with third party visualizing tools
    • Visualizing the results with PaaS load testing tools
      • Redline13
      • Blazemeter
    • Some tips to read the results
      • Prefer percentiles over average
      • Be careful with Downsampling and data retention
      • Be careful with metric definition
      • Be careful with response time at beginning of the load test
      • Don’t rely on metrics of a short load test
      • Check response time distribution
      • Check for spurious events (errors and bad response time)
    • Some tips to present the results
      • Don’t average percentiles
      • Define the number of metrics to display in a time series line graphs
      • Define the resolution/granularity of the measures
      • Don’t forget to add labels, legends and units in graphs
      • Axis Forced 0
      • Don’t use pie charts
      • Prefer bar graphs when we have sparse metrics
      • Present errors with toplist
      • Timeseries graphs and single-value summaries
    • Conclusion
  • Integration of JMeter in the DevOps tool chain
    • Introduction
    • Organization/team topology
      • Load testing team in its ivory tower
      • DevOps and load test team collaboration
      • One performance tester integrated on DevOps team
      • No performance tester
      • Team of evangelists performance testers
    • Setting up Shift-Left strategy
      • Modification in JMeter script to implement Shift-Left strategy
    • Questions to ask before automation
      • Question 1: How many time do we need to create and maintain scripts?
      • Question2: How can we stabilize the test environment (injectors and tested system) to allow us to compare results?
      • Question 3: How long a test should take?
      • Question 4: When do we need to execute automated load test?
      • Question 5: Do we have someone to analyze the load test results?
      • Question 6: When is it acceptable to slow down one part of the application to speed up another?
      • Question 7: How to detect slow performance degradation?
      • Question 8: How to evaluate the effectiveness of load tests?
      • Question 9: How to choose threshold alerting and avoid false positive?
    • Integrating JMeter in our software factory
      • Example 1: Integrating with Jenkins using Maven
        • Ensuring the load tests are run on the correct nodes
          • Configuring the load test using jmeter-maven-plugin
          • Fail the build if error rate of load test is over a threshold
          • Configure HTML report
          • Configure memory used by JMeter
      • Example 2: Enhancing integration with Jenkins using Performance Plugin
    • Automation
      • Example 3: Non-regression testing of memory consumption with EJ JProfiler
      • Example 4: Detecting a Memory leak during an endurance test with EJ JProfiler
      • Example 5: Retrieving SQL queries executed during a load test with YourKit Java Profiler
      • Example 6: Analysis of the Garbage Collector (GC) log file with GCViewer
      • Example 7: Non-regression testing of Web APIs with Dynatrace APM AppMon
        • Registering to Dynatrace using setup Thread Group
        • Using the testId in other Thread Group
    • Conclusion
  • What’s new
    • 2020/04/28 release
      • Chapter “Designing a test case”
      • Chapter “Preparing the test environment (injectors and tested system)”
      • Chapter “Why is it still important to make load test today?”
      • New chapter “What’s new” at the end of the book

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