Kubernetes 101
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Kubernetes 101

Learn the basics of Kubernetes and container-based infrastructure.

About the Book

Jeff Geerling guides you through the basics of Kubernetes and container-based infrastructure, using real-world examples. The book explores all the concepts you will need to know to productively manage applications in Kubernetes clusters.

About the Authors

Jeff Geerling
Jeff Geerling

Jeff Geerling is a developer who has worked in programming and DevOps-related positions for companies with thousands of servers. He also manages infrastructure for services offered by Midwestern Mac, LLC, and has been using Ansible to manage infrastructure since early 2013, and Kubernetes since 2017.

About the Contributors

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    • Who is this book for?
    • Typographic conventions
    • Please help improve this book!
      • Current Published Book Version Information
    • About the Author
  • Introduction
    • Examples Repository
    • Other resources
  • Chapter 1 - Hello, Kubernetes!
    • Kubernetes Origins
    • Is Kubernetes Right for You?
    • Kubernetes Environments
    • Instructions for Minikube
    • Building the example Docker image
  • Chapter 2 - Containers
    • Why does Kubernetes use containers?
    • Container History: Vendor Wars
      • Docker, containerd, and runC
      • rkt and CoreOS
      • Kubernetes Container Runtime
      • CRI-O
      • Modern Container Runtime options
    • How do you build a container? Docker vs Buildah
    • Instructions for ‘Hello Go’ app
    • Build the ‘Hello Go’ Docker container image
    • Push the container image to a private Docker registry
  • Chapter 3 - Deploying apps
    • Creating a Linode Cluster for cloud-based testing
    • Deploying Hello Go into Kubernetes
    • Exposing the Hello Go App
    • Scaling the Hello Go App
    • Updating the Go App
    • Rolling back the Deployment
  • Chapter 4 - Real-world apps
    • Installing Drupal on a Traditional LAMP server
      • LAMP Server Setup for drupal
    • Automating the Installation
    • Installing Drupal on Kubernetes using Bitnami’s Helm Chart
      • Install Helm
      • Install the Drupal Chart
      • Exposing a LoadBalancer in Minikube
      • Changing Chart Options
      • Cleaning Up
    • Drupal Directly in Kubernetes - Let’s Do it [Mostly] Right!
      • Deploying the Drupal Kubernetes Manifests
  • Chapter 5 - Scaling Drupal in k8s
    • Fixing the scalability issue with Drupal Pods
      • Shared Storage Options
      • Rook and Ceph
      • NFS
    • Set up an NFS server
    • Reconfigure the Drupal PersistentVolumeClaim for NFS
      • Set up NFS client provisioner in K8s
      • Deploy Drupal and MySQL (MariaDB)
      • Save a File and observe it
    • Scale Drupal up… and down!
    • Use Horizontal Pod Autoscaling (HPA)
      • Set up metrics-server
      • Configuring HPA for Drupal
      • Testing HPA for Drupal
    • Scaling Databases
  • Chapter 6 - DNS, TLS, Cron, Logging
    • Setting things up from Episode 5
    • DNS and Ingress setup for Drupal
      • Set up an NGINX Ingress Controller
      • Set up Ingress for Drupal
      • External DNS Integration
    • Set up TLS with cert-manager and Let’s Encrypt
    • Keeping Drupal Happy with a CronJob
    • Monitoring Drupal’s Logs
      • Using an External SaaS Log Aggregator
      • Running your own ELK Stack
      • Relying on a Service Mesh
      • Using your cloud provider’s solution
  • Chapter 7 - Hello, Operator!
    • What are Operators?
      • The Concept
      • The Execution
      • Why not use an Operator?
    • Popular Kubernetes Operators
    • Build your own Operator
      • Building an Operator with Operator SDK
      • Any language, including Python or Rust!
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 8 - Kube, Meet Pi
    • Heavy Metal Kubernetes
    • Start with Training Wheels
      • The Raspberry Pi makes for Compact Clusters
      • The Raspberry Pi sips energy, and keeps its cool
      • The Raspberry Pi teaches lessons about scalability
      • ARM is not all sunshine and roses
    • Installing a Kubernetes Distribution
      • kubeadm
    • Setting up the Raspberry Pi Dramble
    • Going Further
      • Other Guides
  • Chapter 9 - Secrets and Configuration
  • Chapter 10 - Monitoring Kubernetes
    •  
      • Two Clusters to Monitor
    • Cluster Visibility with Lens
      • Install Lens
      • Inspect your clusters with Lens
      • Explore Pod Logs
      • Log into Nodes and Pods
      • Visit web services in a browser
      • Manage resources
    • Prometheus and Grafana
      • Install Prometheus and Grafana using Helm
      • Access Grafana
      • Grafana Dashboards
      • Maintaining Grafana
    • Conclusion
  • Afterword

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