Interpretable Machine Learning (Second Edition)
Minimum price
Suggested price

Interpretable Machine Learning (Second Edition)

A Guide for Making Black Box Models Explainable

About the Book

Interpretable Machine Learning is a comprehensive guide to making machine learning models interpretable

"Pretty convinced this is the best book out there on the subject"

– Brian Lewis, Data Scientist at Cornerstone Research


This book covers a range of interpretability methods, from inherently interpretable models to methods that can make any model interpretable, such as SHAP, LIME, and permutation feature importance. It also includes interpretation methods specific to deep neural networks and discusses why interpretability is important in machine learning. All interpretation methods are explained in depth and discussed critically. How do they work under the hood? What are their strengths and weaknesses? How can their outputs be interpreted?

"What I love about this book is that it starts with the big picture instead of diving immediately into the nitty gritty of the methods (although all of that is there, too)."

– Andrea Farnham, Researcher at Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute

Who the book is for

This book is essential for machine learning practitioners, data scientists, statisticians, and anyone interested in making their machine learning models interpretable. It will help readers select and apply the appropriate interpretation method for their specific project.

"This one has been a life saver for me to interpret models. ALE plots are just too good!"

– Sai Teja Pasul, Data Scientist at Kohl's

You'll learn about

  • The concepts of machine leaning interpretability
  • Inherently interpretable models
  • Methods to make any machine model interpretable, such as SHAP, LIME and permutation feature importance
  • Interpretation methods specific to deep neural networks
  • Why interpretability is important and what's behind this concept

About the author

The author, Christoph Molnar, is an expert in machine learning and statistics, with a Ph.D. in interpretable machine learning.

Other Versions

The print version can be bought on Amazon.

A free HTML version of the book can be found at:

About the Author

Christoph Molnar
Christoph Molnar

On a mission to make algorithms more interpretable by combining machine learning and statistics.

Bundles that include this book

Bought separately
Bundle Price
Bought separately
Minimum price
Suggested price

About the Contributors


Cover designer

Table of Contents

  • Summary
  • 1 Preface by the Author
  • 2 Introduction
    • 2.1 Story Time
      • Lightning Never Strikes Twice
      • Trust Fall
      • Fermi’s Paperclip
    • 2.2 What Is Machine Learning?
    • 2.3 Terminology
  • 3 Interpretability
    • 3.1 Importance of Interpretability
    • 3.2 Taxonomy of Interpretability Methods
    • 3.3 Scope of Interpretability
  • 4 Datasets
    • 4.1 Bike Rentals (Regression)
    • 4.2 YouTube Spam Comments (Text Classification)
    • 4.3 Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer (Classification)
  • 5 Interpretable Models
    • 5.1 Linear Regression
      • 5.2 Logistic Regression
      • 5.3 GLM, GAM and more
      • 5.4 Decision Tree
      • 5.5 Decision Rules
      • 5.6 RuleFit
      • 5.7 Other Interpretable Models
    • 6 Model-Agnostic Methods
    • 7 Example-Based Explanations
    • 8 Global Model-Agnostic Methods
      • 8.1 Partial Dependence Plot (PDP)
      • 8.2 Accumulated Local Effects (ALE) Plot
      • 8.3.1 Feature Interaction
      • 8.4 Functional Decompositon
      • 8.5 Permutation Feature Importance
      • 8.6 Global Surrogate
      • 8.7 Prototypes and Criticisms
    • 9 Local Model-Agnostic Methods
      • 9.1 Individual Conditional Expectation (ICE)
      • 9.2 Local Surrogate (LIME)
      • 9.3 Counterfactual Explanations
      • 9.4 Scoped Rules (Anchors)
      • 9.5 Shapley Values
      • 9.6 SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations)
    • 10 Neural Network Interpretation
      • 10.1 Learned Features
      • 10.2 Pixel Attribution (Saliency Maps)
      • 10.3 Detecting Concepts
      • 10.4 Adversarial Examples
      • 10.5 Influential Instances
    • 11 A Look into the Crystal Ball
    • 12 Contribute to the Book
    • 13 Citing this Book
    • 14 Translations
    • 15 Acknowledgements
    • 16 References

The Leanpub 60 Day 100% Happiness Guarantee

Within 60 days of purchase you can get a 100% refund on any Leanpub purchase, in two clicks.

Now, this is technically risky for us, since you'll have the book or course files either way. But we're so confident in our products and services, and in our authors and readers, that we're happy to offer a full money back guarantee for everything we sell.

You can only find out how good something is by trying it, and because of our 100% money back guarantee there's literally no risk to do so!

So, there's no reason not to click the Add to Cart button, is there?

See full terms...

80% Royalties. Earn $16 on a $20 book.

We pay 80% royalties. That's not a typo: you earn $16 on a $20 sale. If we sell 5000 non-refunded copies of your book or course for $20, you'll earn $80,000.

(Yes, some authors have already earned much more than that on Leanpub.)

In fact, authors have earnedover $12 millionwriting, publishing and selling on Leanpub.

Learn more about writing on Leanpub

Free Updates. DRM Free.

If you buy a Leanpub book, you get free updates for as long as the author updates the book! Many authors use Leanpub to publish their books in-progress, while they are writing them. All readers get free updates, regardless of when they bought the book or how much they paid (including free).

Most Leanpub books are available in PDF (for computers) and EPUB (for phones, tablets and Kindle). The formats that a book includes are shown at the top right corner of this page.

Finally, Leanpub books don't have any DRM copy-protection nonsense, so you can easily read them on any supported device.

Learn more about Leanpub's ebook formats and where to read them

Write and Publish on Leanpub

You can use Leanpub to easily write, publish and sell in-progress and completed ebooks and online courses!

Leanpub is a powerful platform for serious authors, combining a simple, elegant writing and publishing workflow with a store focused on selling in-progress ebooks.

Leanpub is a magical typewriter for authors: just write in plain text, and to publish your ebook, just click a button. (Or, if you are producing your ebook your own way, you can even upload your own PDF and/or EPUB files and then publish with one click!) It really is that easy.

Learn more about writing on Leanpub