Cognitive Biases: A Brief Overview of Over 160 Cognitive Biases

Cognitive Biases: A Brief Overview of Over 160 Cognitive Biases

+ Bonus Chapter: Algorithmic Bias

About the Book

If you need it between your fingers you can order the paperback here (Lulu): COGNITIVE BIASES - A Brief Overview of Over 160 Cognitive Biases + Bonus Chapter: Algorithmic Bias

Note by the author:

Don't feel bad if you download the eBook for free. It is a critical topic, and I would be delighted if you would look into it more deeply. We need to make more people aware of the issue - especially people who develop ML algorithms (algorithmic bias) and commission them. 

Let's learn more about our human biases to make less biased conclusions in the future.

A world with less bias is a better world.

~ Murat Durmus

Table of Contents



Availability Heuristic

Attentional Bias

Illusory Truth Effect

Mere-Exposure Effect

Context Effect

Cue-Dependent Forgetting

Mood Congruence

Frequency Illusion

Empathy Gap

Omission Bias

Base Rate Fallacy

Bizarreness Effect

Humor Effect

Von Restorff Effect

Picture Superiority Effect

Self-Reference Effect

Negativity Bias

Anchoring or Focalism

Conservatism (belief revision)

Contrast Effect

Distinction Bias

Framing Effect

Money Illusion

Weber-Fechner Law

Confirmation Bias

Congruence Bias

Choice-Supportive Bias

Selective Perception

Observer-Expectancy Effect

Ostrich Effect

Subjective Validation

Semmelweis Reflex

Bias Blind Spot

Naïve Cynicism

Naïve Realism



Clustering Illusion

Insensitivity to Sample Size

Neglect of Probability

Anecdotal Evidence

Illusion of Validity

Masked-Man Fallacy

Recency Illusion

Gambler's Fallacy

Hot Hand

Illusory Correlation



Group Attribution Error

Ultimate Attribution Error Attribution bias



Functional Fixedness


Just-World Hypothesis

Argument from Fallacy

Authority Bias

Automation Bias

Bandwagon Effect

Placebo Effect

Out-Group Homogeneity

Cross-Race Effect

In-Group Favoritism

Halo Effect

Cheerleader Effect

Positivity Effect

Not Invented Here

Reactive Devaluation

Well Travelled Road Effect

Mental Accounting

Appeal to Probability

Normalcy Bias

Murphy's Law

Zero-Sum Thinking

Survivorship Bias

Subadditivity Effect

Denomination Effect

The Magical Number

Illusion of Transparency

Curse of Knowledge

Spotlight Effect

Extrinsic Incentives Bias

Illusion of Asymmetric Insight

Telescoping Effect

Rosy Retrospection

Hindsight Bias

Outcome Bias

Moral Luck


Impact Bias

Pessimism Bias

Planning Fallacy

Time-Saving Bias

Pro-Innovation Bias

Projection Bias

Restraint Bias

Consistency Bias


Overconfidence Effect

Social-Desirability Bias

Third-Person Effect

False Consensus Effect

Hard-Easy Effect

The Lake Wobegon Effect

Dunning-Kruger Effect

Egocentric Bias

Optimism Bias

Barnum Effect

Self-Serving Bias

Actor-Observer Asymmetry

Illusion of Control

Illusory Superiority

Fundamental Attribution Error

Defensive Attribution Hypothesis

Trait Ascription Bias

Effort Justification

Risk Compensation

Peltzman Effect

Hyperbolic Discounting

Appeal to Novelty

Identifiable Victim Effect

Sunk Cost Fallacy

(Irrational) Escalation of Commitment

Generation Effect

Loss Aversion

IKEA Effect

Zero-Risk Bias

Disposition Effect

Pseudocertainty Effect

Backfire Effect

System Justification

Reverse Psychology


Decoy Effect

Social Comparison Bias

Status Quo Bias

Ambiguity Effect

Information Bias

Belief Bias

Rhyme-as-Reason Effect

Law of Triviality

Conjunction Fallacy

Occam's Razor

Less-is-Better Effect


Misattribution of Memory

Source Confusion


False Memory


Spacing Effect

Implicit Stereotype


Fading Affect Bias

Peak-End Rule

Leveling and Sharpening

Misinformation Effect

Serial Recall Effect

Duration Neglect

Modality Effect

Memory Inhibition

Primacy Effect

Recency Effect

Part-Set Cuing Effect

Serial-Position Effect

Levels of Processing Model


Testing Effect

Next-In-Line Effect

Google Effect

Tip of the Tongue


What is Algorithmic Bias?

Types of Algorithmic Bias





Unexpected use

Feedback loops

Impacts of Algorithmic Bias

Gender Discrimination

Discrimination based on race and ethnic origin

Commercial influences

Voting behavior

Law enforcement and litigation

Online hate speech


More Books by the Author



Taxonomy of the most commonly used Machine Learning Algorithms

RUMI -  Drops of Enlightenment:  (Quotes & Poems)


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