About the Book
My book C++20 is both: a tutorial and reference to the C++20 standard. It teaches you C++20 and provides you with the details of this new thrilling C++ standard. The thrilling factor is mainly due to the big four of C++20.
- Concepts change the way we think and program templates. They are semantic categories for the template parameters. They enable you to express your intention directly in the type system. If something goes wrong, you get a clear error message.
- The new ranges library enables it to perform algorithms directly on the container, compose the algorithm with the pipe symbol, and apply them onto infinite data streams.
- Thanks to coroutines asynchronous programming in C++ becomes mainstream. Coroutines are the base for cooperative tasks, event loops, infinite data streams, or pipelines.
- Modules overcome the restrictions of header files. They promise a lot. For example, the separation of header and source files becomes as obsolete as the preprocessor. In the end, we have faster built time and an easier way to build packages.
- Special Fonts
- Special Boxes
- Compilation of the Programs
- How should you read the Book?
- About Me
A Quick Overview of C++20
1.1 The Big Four
- 1.1.1 Concepts
- 1.1.2 Modules
- 1.1.3 The Ranges Library
- 1.1.4 Coroutines
1.2 Core Language
- 1.2.1 Three-Way Comparison Operator
- 1.2.2 Designated Initialization
- 1.2.4 Template Improvements
- 1.2.5 Lambda Improvements
- 1.2.6 New Attributes
1.3 The Standard Library
- 1.3.2 Container Improvements
- 1.3.3 Arithmetic Utilities
- 1.3.4 Calendar and Time Zones
- 1.3.5 Formatting Library
- 1.4.1 Atomics
- 1.4.2 Semaphores
- 1.4.3 Latches and Barriers
- 1.4.4 Cooperative Interruption
- 1.4.6 Synchronized Outputstreams
- 1.1 The Big Four
- 1. C++20
2. Historical Context
- 2.1 C++98
- 2.2 C++03
- 2.3 TR1
- 2.4 C++11
- 2.5 C++14
- 2.6 C++17
3. Core Language
- 3.1.1 Two Wrong Approaches
- 3.1.2 Advantages of Concepts
- 3.1.3 The long, long History
- 3.1.4 Usage of Concepts
- 3.1.5 Constrained and Unconstrained Placeholders
- 3.1.6 Abbreviated Function Templates
- 3.1.7 Predefined Concepts
- 3.1.8 Define Concepts
- 3.1.9 Application
- 3.2.1 Why do we need Modules?
- 3.2.2 Advantages
- 3.2.3 A First Example
- 3.2.4 Compilation and Use
- 3.2.5 Export
- 3.2.6 Guidelines for a Module Structure
- 3.2.7 Module Interface Unit and Module Implementation Unit
- 3.2.8 Submodules and Module Partitions
- 3.2.9 Templates in Modules
- 3.2.10 Module Linkage
- 3.2.11 Header Units
3.3 Three-Way Comparison Operator
- 3.3.1 Ordering before C++20
- 3.3.2 Ordering since C++20
- 3.3.3 The Compiler-Generated Spaceship Operator
- 3.3.4 Rewriting Expressions
- 3.3.5 User-Defined and Auto-Generated Comparison Operators
3.4 Designated Initialization
- 3.4.1 Aggregate Initialization
- 3.4.2 Named Initialization of Class Members
- 3.5.3 Function Execution
- 3.5.4 Variable Initialization
- 3.5.5 Solving the Static Initialization Order Fiasco
3.6 Template Improvements
- 3.6.1 Conditionally Explicit Constructor
- 3.6.2 Non-Type Template Parameters
3.7 Lambda Improvements
- 3.7.1 Template Parameter for Lambdas
3.7.2 Detection of the Implicit Copy of the
- 3.7.3 Lambdas in an Unevaluated Context and Stateless Lambdas can be Default-Constructed and Copy-Assigned
3.8 New Attributes
3.9 Further Improvements
- 3.9.2 Range-based for-loop with Initializers
3.9.4 The new Character Type of UTF-8 Strings:
enumin Local Scopes
- 3.9.6 Default Member Initializers for Bit Fields
- 3.1 Concepts
4. The Standard Library
4.1 The Ranges Library
- 4.1.1 The Concepts Ranges and Views
- 4.1.2 Direct on the Container
- 4.1.3 Function Composition
- 4.1.4 Lazy Evaluation
- 4.1.5 A Flavor of Python
- 4.2.1 Static versus Dynamic Extent
- 4.2.2 Automatically Deduces the Size of a Contiguous Sequence of Objects
4.2.3 Create a
std::spanfrom a Pointer and a Size
- 4.2.4 Modifying the Referenced Objects
- 4.2.6 A Constant Range of Modifiable Elements
4.3 Container Improvements
constexprContainers and Algorithms
- 4.3.3 Consistent Container Erasure
containsfor Associative Containers
- 4.3.5 String prefix and suffix checking
4.4 Arithmetic Utilities
- 4.4.1 Safe Comparison of Integers
- 4.4.2 Mathematical Constants
- 4.4.3 Midpoint and Linear Interpolation
- 4.4.4 Bit Manipulation
4.5 Calendar and Time Zones
- 4.5.1 Time of day
- 4.5.2 Calendar Dates
- 4.5.3 Time Zones
4.6 Formatting Library
- 4.6.1 Format String
- 4.6.2 User-Defined Types
4.7 Further Improvements
- 4.1 The Ranges Library
- 5.1.1 A Generator Function
- 5.1.2 Details
- 5.1.3 The Framework
- 5.2.2 Atomic Smart Pointer
- 5.3 Semaphores
5.4 Latches and Barriers
5.5 Cooperative Interruption
- 5.6.1 Automatically Joining
5.6.2 Cooperative Interruption of a
- 5.7 Synchronized Outputstreams
- 5.1 Coroutines
6. Case Studies
- 6.1 Fast Synchronization of Threads
- 2. Historical Context
7. C++23 and Beyond
- 7.1.1 The Coroutines Library
- 7.1.2 Modularized Standard Library for Modules
- 7.1.3 Executors
- 7.1.4 The Network Library
7.2 C++23 or Later
- 7.2.1 Contracts
- 7.2.2 Reflection
- 7.2.3 Pattern Matching
- 7.3 Further Information to C++23
- 7.1 C++23
- 8. Feature Testing
- 7. C++23 and Beyond
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