Trunk-Based Development And Branch By Abstraction
Trunk-Based Development And Branch By Abstraction
About the Book
An all you need to know reference book about trunk-based development, Branch by abstraction and related software development practices. Many diagrams throughout, and a sections on working out how your company can get from where you are to trunk-based development, CI, CD and all that comes with it.
- 1 Preface
- 2.1 Brief Summary
- 2.2 Claims
- 2.3 Caveats
- 2.4 History
- 3.1 Trunk-Based Development prerequisites
- 3.2 Trunk-Based Development facilitates
- 3.3 Psychological safety
4 Five-minute overview
- 4.1 Distance between developers
- 4.2 What it is
- 4.3 A safety net
- 4.4 Developer team commitments
- 4.5 Drilling into “Distance”
5 Deciding Factors
- 5.1 Release cadence
- 5.2 Source-Control Technology Choice
- 5.3 Conway’s Law
- 5.4 Database migrations
- 5.5 Shared code
- 5.6 Which dev teams?
6 Source-Control System Features
- 6.1 Productivity
- 6.2 Governance
7 Source-Control System Choices
- 7.1 Git and Mercurial
- 7.2 Perforce
- 7.3 Subversion
- 7.4 Team Foundation Server - TFS
- 7.5 PlasticSCM
8 Feature flags
- 8.1 Granularity
- 8.2 Implementation
- 8.3 Continuous Integration Pipelines
- 8.4 Runtime Switchable
- 8.5 Build Flags
- 8.6 A/B testing and betas
- 8.7 Tech Debt - pitfall
- 8.8 Flags History
9 Branch by Abstraction - Introduction
- 9.1 Ideal steps
- 9.2 Contrived example
- 9.3 Real life software example
- 9.4 Secondary benefits
- 9.5 Not a panacea
- 9.6 More reading for this procedure
- 9.7 History
10 Branch for release
- 10.1 Who is committing where?
- 10.2 Late creation of release branches
- 10.3 Fix production bugs on Trunk
- 10.4 Patch releases
- 10.5 Release branch deletion
- 11 Release From Trunk
12 Styles of Trunk-Based Development
- 12.1 Committing Straight to the Trunk
- 12.2 Short-Lived Feature Branches
- 12.3 Coupled “Patch Review” System
- 12.4 The Importance of a Local build
- 12.5 Choosing a style
13 Continuous Integration (CI)
- 13.1 Continuous Integration - as defined
- 13.2 CI services: Bots verifying human actions
- 13.3 Advanced CI topics
- 13.4 Industry CI daemon confusion
- 13.5 Server/daemon implementations
- 14 Committing straight to the trunk
- 15 Alternatives to committing straight to the trunk
16 Short-Lived Feature Branches
- 16.1 Merge directionality
- 16.2 Two developers concurrently working on short-lived feature branches
- 16.3 Personal preferences
- 16.4 Breaking the principles
- 17 Alternatives to short-lived feature branches
18 Continuous Code Review
- 18.1 The high bar today
- 18.2 Pull Requests (PRs)
- 18.3 Open Source contributions via PRs
- 18.4 PRs from colleagues
- 18.5 Common Code Owners
- 18.6 Enterprise code review - in the past
- 18.7 Mondrian
19 Continuous Delivery (CD)
- 19.1 Continuous Deployment
20 Concurrent development of consecutive releases
- 20.1 Concurrent Development?
- 20.2 Oops?
- 20.3 Reorder Releases?
- 20.4 Un-merge?
- 20.5 Flags, abstractions, and pipelines
- 21 Application/service strangulation
22 Observed habits
- 22.1 No Code Freeze
- 22.2 Quick Reviews
- 22.3 Chasing HEAD
- 22.4 Running the build locally
- 22.5 Facilitating commits
- 22.6 Powering through broken builds
- 22.7 Shared Nothing
- 22.8 Common code ownership
- 22.9 Always Release Ready
- 22.10 Thin vertical slices
23 You’re doing it wrong
- 23.1 Merely naming a branch trunk.
- 23.2 Cherry-pick of bug fixes from release branches to the trunk
- 23.3 Merging rather than cherry-pick to/from a release branch
- 23.4 Duration of ‘short-lived’ feature branches
- 23.5 Numbers of developers on ‘short-lived’ feature branches
- 23.6 Every day not being the same for developers.
- 23.7 Keeping a single release branch
- 23.8 Merge from one release branch to another release branch
- 23.9 Merge everything back from a release branch at the end of the release branch
24 Alternative branching models
- 24.1 Modern claimed high-throughput branching models
- 24.2 Legacy branching models
- 24.3 More than one trunk
- 24.4 CI (dis)proof of your branching model
- 25.1 Third-party dependencies
- 25.2 In-house dependencies
- 25.3 Code Ownership
- 25.4 Directed graph build systems
- 25.5 Recursive build systems
- 25.6 The “diamond dependency problem”
- 25.7 Clash of ideologies
- 25.8 Deciding against a monorepo
26 Expanding Contracting Monorepos
- 26.1 Gcheckout.sh
- 26.2 Contrived example of use
- 26.3 Contrived example of use #2
- 26.4 Git’s Sparse checkouts
- 26.5 Perforce’s client-specs
- 26.6 PlasticSCM’s cloaked.conf
- 26.7 Subversion’s sparse-checkouts
27 Game Changers
- 27.1 Revision Control System - RCS (1982)
- 27.2 Concurrent Versions System - CVS (1990)
- 27.3 Microsoft Secrets book (1995)
- 27.4 NetScape’s Tinderbox (1997)
- 27.5 Perforce and ClearCase (1998)
- 27.6 Extreme Programming’s Continuous Integration (1999)
- 27.7 Continuous Integration paper on MartinFowler.com (2000)
- 27.8 ThoughtWorks’ Cruise Control (2001)
- 27.9 Apache’s Gump
- 27.10 Subversion’s “lightweight” branching (2000 through 2001)
- 27.11 Git’s “lightweight” branching (2005)
- 27.12 Google’s internal DevOps (2006 onwards)
- 27.13 Branch by Abstraction technique (2007)
- 27.14 GitHub’s entire initial platform (2008)
- 27.15 Continuous Delivery Book (2010)
- 27.16 Travis-CI’s GitHub integration and pass/fail badges (2011)
- 27.17 Microservices (2011 and 2012)
- 27.18 Case Study: A Practical Approach To Large-Scale Agile Development (2012)
- 27.19 TravisCI’s per-commit speculative mergeability analysis (2012)
- 27.20 PlasticSCM’s semantic merge (2013)
- 27.21 Google revealing their Monorepo Trunk (2016)
- 27.22 Microsoft’s Virtual File System for Git (2017)
- 28.1 Books promoting Trunk-Based Development
- 28.2 Reports promoting Trunk-Based Development
29 Challenge: Identifying bottlenecks
- 29.1 Value Stream Mapping
- 29.2 Current Reality Trees
30 Addressing common bottlenecks
- 30.1 Warning: Culture eats strategy for breakfast
- 30.2 Development “cycle time” consideration
- 30.3 Insufficient business analysis.
- 30.4 Testing generally
- 30.5 Builds not speedy enough
- 30.6 Insufficient Pipeline steps
- 30.7 Fast build example
- 30.8 Test Impact Analysis
31 Trunk Correlated Practices: Charting where you are against others
- 31.1 Key to understanding the chart
- 31.2 Goal: Dialing up release cadence
- 31.3 Branching model and Source Organization
- 31.4 Release preparation & Continuous Integration
- 31.5 Code sharing and third party dependencies
- 31.6 Flags, toggles, changes that take a while, and code review
- 31.7 All classes of environment
- 31.8 Quality Assurance / Testing
- 31.9 Shift left
- 31.10 Unit tests followed by integration tests
- 31.11 Test Impact Analysis
- 31.12 Service Virtualization
- 31.13 A little bit of shift right
- 31.14 Database changes and rollbacks
- 31.15 Developer Duties/Attitude/Retention
- 31.16 Talent Retention
- 31.17 Others
- 32 Contributions
- 33 Glossary
- 34 Abbreviations Used in this Publication
Appendix 1: Different ways of explaining Branch By Abstraction
- Explained using UML sequence diagrams
- Explained using construction metaphor
- Explained using a series of changes to a Java app
Appendix 2: Visualizing CI & CD
- Traditional CI without CD
- Continuous Delivery into a QA or UAT environment
- Continuous Deployment into Prod
- Branch for Release
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