Trunk-Based Development And Branch By Abstraction
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Trunk-Based Development And Branch By Abstraction

About the Book

An all you need to know reference book about trunk-based development, Branch by abstraction and related software development practices. Many diagrams throughout, and a sections on working out how your company can get from where you are to trunk-based development, CI, CD and all that comes with it.

About the Author

Paul Hammant
Paul Hammant

The world's top expert on Trunk-Based Development and Branch by Abstraction. Also Selenium (v1) and PicoContainer co-creator.

Table of Contents

  • 1 Preface
  • 2 Introduction
    • 2.1 Brief Summary
    • 2.2 Claims
    • 2.3 Caveats
    • 2.4 History
  • 3 Context
    • 3.1 Trunk-Based Development prerequisites
    • 3.2 Trunk-Based Development facilitates
    • 3.3 Psychological safety
  • 4 Five-minute overview
    • 4.1 Distance between developers
    • 4.2 What it is
    • 4.3 A safety net
    • 4.4 Developer team commitments
    • 4.5 Drilling into “Distance”
  • 5 Deciding Factors
    • 5.1 Release cadence
    • 5.2 Source-Control Technology Choice
    • 5.3 Conway’s Law
    • 5.4 Database migrations
    • 5.5 Shared code
    • 5.6 Which dev teams?
  • 6 Source-Control System Features
    • 6.1 Productivity
    • 6.2 Governance
  • 7 Source-Control System Choices
    • 7.1 Git and Mercurial
    • 7.2 Perforce
    • 7.3 Subversion
    • 7.4 Team Foundation Server - TFS
    • 7.5 PlasticSCM
  • 8 Feature flags
    • 8.1 Granularity
    • 8.2 Implementation
    • 8.3 Continuous Integration Pipelines
    • 8.4 Runtime Switchable
    • 8.5 Build Flags
    • 8.6 A/B testing and betas
    • 8.7 Tech Debt - pitfall
    • 8.8 Flags History
  • 9 Branch by Abstraction - Introduction
    • 9.1 Ideal steps
    • 9.2 Contrived example
    • 9.3 Real life software example
    • 9.4 Secondary benefits
    • 9.5 Not a panacea
    • 9.6 More reading for this procedure
    • 9.7 History
  • 10 Branch for release
    • 10.1 Who is committing where?
    • 10.2 Late creation of release branches
    • 10.3 Fix production bugs on Trunk
    • 10.4 Patch releases
    • 10.5 Release branch deletion
  • 11 Release From Trunk
  • 12 Styles of Trunk-Based Development
    • 12.1 Committing Straight to the Trunk
    • 12.2 Short-Lived Feature Branches
    • 12.3 Coupled “Patch Review” System
    • 12.4 The Importance of a Local build
    • 12.5 Choosing a style
  • 13 Continuous Integration (CI)
    • 13.1 Continuous Integration - as defined
    • 13.2 CI services: Bots verifying human actions
    • 13.3 Advanced CI topics
    • 13.4 Industry CI daemon confusion
    • 13.5 Server/daemon implementations
  • 14 Committing straight to the trunk
  • 15 Alternatives to committing straight to the trunk
  • 16 Short-Lived Feature Branches
    • 16.1 Merge directionality
    • 16.2 Two developers concurrently working on short-lived feature branches
    • 16.3 Personal preferences
    • 16.4 Breaking the principles
  • 17 Alternatives to short-lived feature branches
  • 18 Continuous Code Review
    • 18.1 The high bar today
    • 18.2 Pull Requests (PRs)
    • 18.3 Open Source contributions via PRs
    • 18.4 PRs from colleagues
    • 18.5 Common Code Owners
    • 18.6 Enterprise code review - in the past
    • 18.7 Mondrian
  • 19 Continuous Delivery (CD)
    • 19.1 Continuous Deployment
  • 20 Concurrent development of consecutive releases
    • 20.1 Concurrent Development?
    • 20.2 Oops?
    • 20.3 Reorder Releases?
    • 20.4 Un-merge?
    • 20.5 Flags, abstractions, and pipelines
  • 21 Application/service strangulation
  • 22 Observed habits
    • 22.1 No Code Freeze
    • 22.2 Quick Reviews
    • 22.3 Chasing HEAD
    • 22.4 Running the build locally
    • 22.5 Facilitating commits
    • 22.6 Powering through broken builds
    • 22.7 Shared Nothing
    • 22.8 Common code ownership
    • 22.9 Always Release Ready
    • 22.10 Thin vertical slices
  • 23 You’re doing it wrong
    • 23.1 Merely naming a branch trunk.
    • 23.2 Cherry-pick of bug fixes from release branches to the trunk
    • 23.3 Merging rather than cherry-pick to/from a release branch
    • 23.4 Duration of ‘short-lived’ feature branches
    • 23.5 Numbers of developers on ‘short-lived’ feature branches
    • 23.6 Every day not being the same for developers.
    • 23.7 Keeping a single release branch
    • 23.8 Merge from one release branch to another release branch
    • 23.9 Merge everything back from a release branch at the end of the release branch
  • 24 Alternative branching models
    • 24.1 Modern claimed high-throughput branching models
    • 24.2 Legacy branching models
    • 24.3 More than one trunk
    • 24.4 CI (dis)proof of your branching model
  • 25 Monorepos
    • 25.1 Third-party dependencies
    • 25.2 In-house dependencies
    • 25.3 Code Ownership
    • 25.4 Directed graph build systems
    • 25.5 Recursive build systems
    • 25.6 The “diamond dependency problem”
    • 25.7 Clash of ideologies
    • 25.8 Deciding against a monorepo
  • 26 Expanding Contracting Monorepos
    • 26.1 Gcheckout.sh
    • 26.2 Contrived example of use
    • 26.3 Contrived example of use #2
    • 26.4 Git’s Sparse checkouts
    • 26.5 Perforce’s client-specs
    • 26.6 PlasticSCM’s cloaked.conf
    • 26.7 Subversion’s sparse-checkouts
  • 27 Game Changers
    • 27.1 Revision Control System - RCS (1982)
    • 27.2 Concurrent Versions System - CVS (1990)
    • 27.3 Microsoft Secrets book (1995)
    • 27.4 NetScape’s Tinderbox (1997)
    • 27.5 Perforce and ClearCase (1998)
    • 27.6 Extreme Programming’s Continuous Integration (1999)
    • 27.7 Continuous Integration paper on MartinFowler.com (2000)
    • 27.8 ThoughtWorks’ Cruise Control (2001)
    • 27.9 Apache’s Gump
    • 27.10 Subversion’s “lightweight” branching (2000 through 2001)
    • 27.11 Git’s “lightweight” branching (2005)
    • 27.12 Google’s internal DevOps (2006 onwards)
    • 27.13 Branch by Abstraction technique (2007)
    • 27.14 GitHub’s entire initial platform (2008)
    • 27.15 Continuous Delivery Book (2010)
    • 27.16 Travis-CI’s GitHub integration and pass/fail badges (2011)
    • 27.17 Microservices (2011 and 2012)
    • 27.18 Case Study: A Practical Approach To Large-Scale Agile Development (2012)
    • 27.19 TravisCI’s per-commit speculative mergeability analysis (2012)
    • 27.20 PlasticSCM’s semantic merge (2013)
    • 27.21 Google revealing their Monorepo Trunk (2016)
    • 27.22 Microsoft’s Virtual File System for Git (2017)
  • 28 Publications
    • 28.1 Books promoting Trunk-Based Development
    • 28.2 Reports promoting Trunk-Based Development
  • 29 Challenge: Identifying bottlenecks
    • 29.1 Value Stream Mapping
    • 29.2 Current Reality Trees
  • 30 Addressing common bottlenecks
    • 30.1 Warning: Culture eats strategy for breakfast
    • 30.2 Development “cycle time” consideration
    • 30.3 Insufficient business analysis.
    • 30.4 Testing generally
    • 30.5 Builds not speedy enough
    • 30.6 Insufficient Pipeline steps
    • 30.7 Fast build example
    • 30.8 Test Impact Analysis
  • 31 Trunk Correlated Practices: Charting where you are against others
    • 31.1 Key to understanding the chart
    • 31.2 Goal: Dialing up release cadence
    • 31.3 Branching model and Source Organization
    • 31.4 Release preparation & Continuous Integration
    • 31.5 Code sharing and third party dependencies
    • 31.6 Flags, toggles, changes that take a while, and code review
    • 31.7 All classes of environment
    • 31.8 Quality Assurance / Testing
    • 31.9 Shift left
    • 31.10 Unit tests followed by integration tests
    • 31.11 Test Impact Analysis
    • 31.12 Service Virtualization
    • 31.13 A little bit of shift right
    • 31.14 Database changes and rollbacks
    • 31.15 Developer Duties/Attitude/Retention
    • 31.16 Talent Retention
    • 31.17 Others
  • 32 Contributions
  • 33 Glossary
  • 34 Abbreviations Used in this Publication
  • Appendix 1: Different ways of explaining Branch By Abstraction
    • Explained using UML sequence diagrams
    • Explained using construction metaphor
    • Explained using a series of changes to a Java app
  • Appendix 2: Visualizing CI & CD
    • Traditional CI without CD
    • Continuous Delivery into a QA or UAT environment
    • Continuous Deployment into Prod
    • Branch for Release
  • Notes

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