About the Book
“On the moral use of aesthetic behaviors” is an educational text about taste as something that helps people in the practice of virtues. Taste, here, is a component of Freedom in which the person acts and behaves from inner drive.
“On the cohesion of the animal and spiritual natures of the human being” attempts to demonstrate the close relationship between our body and soul.
A very audacious essay for its time and still for our century, because it asserts the pre-eminence of the mental condition, and therefore, of the aesthetic education in our overall well-being. This is also the writing which owed F. Schiller his first literary censure.
“On the necessity to have limits in the use of beautiful forms” is the aesthetic essay par excellence, and exposes the different relationships among our personal skills, of which we should be aware, in order to use discernment.
“On the common and minor treatment of artistic subjects” refines our judgmental capacity further by pointing out at these two manners of dealing with an artistic subject (also applicable in literary style); some will notice that this essay is expressed in a rather incisive manner.
About the Author
F. Schiller is a major figure of Enlightenment, who influenced many other philosophers, writers and statesmen and historians with his insightful rendition of such topics as the State, History, Religion, the Sublime. but also Love and Nature.
1759. Frederick Schiller is born in Marbach, in the state of Wurttemberg, where his father serves as an officer in the ducal army.
1772. Against his will and that of his parents, he is enrolled in the military academy of the Duke of Wurttemberg in Ludwigsburg, as cadet.
1774. His parents sign a bond linking their son to the service of the Duke. During these years, he will be subjected to several physical and moral mistreatments. However, he still secretly hopes to become a Lutheran pastor.As the years go by, he would finally give up this idea as no theology classes would be allowed in the academy. He would then, still secretly, prepare himself to become a writer. In parallel with his formal study, he would read as much as he can the great classic works. It is during this time that he also discovers the great thinkers of Enlightenment.
From 1777 on, he works on “The robbers”, his play about the emancipation from the traditional conception of rule and order.
1780. Schiller graduates as a medical officer, only after submitting his third dissertation, and is appointed regiment physician. The Duke would refuse him the right to carry a weapon as a further sign of humiliation.
1781. With the help of friends, he prints his work, and soon, the play is rehearsed in Mannheim, without the consent of the Duke of Wurttemberg.
1782. He would be put in jail for insubordination. To avoid further punishment, and to assert his choice to become a writer, he flees the city of Stuttgart with his friend Streicher in direction of Mannheim.
1782-84. For almost three years, he would live as a fugitive, fleeing from one place to another, experiencing sickness and deprivation, to secure his life. He authored three plays during this period: “Fiesco”, “Intrigue and Love” and “Don Carlos”.He is acquainted with many young ladies and his reputation as a romantic writer is established.
1785. He leaves Mannheim to join Körner and his group of friends, in Leipzig and then, in Dresden. He composes during this period “Ode to Joy” and other short stories among which “Lost honour” and “The mind reader”.
1787-88. Deceived by the turn of events, he decides to head to Weimar where the spirits of Wieland, Herder and Goethe reign supreme. He composes the “Gods of Greece”, a poem about the power structure he found in Saxony. Weimar has just risen from the ashes, and yet, intends to play an important role in the Prussian plan.No position would be offered to him, and he decides, at the suggestion of his friend Wolzogen, to visit the family Lengefeld in Rudolstadt. It is in this city where he would meet Goethe for the first time. He finishes “The secession of the united Netherlands from Spanish ruling”. At the end of this year, he is appointed History Professor at Jena University.
1790. Schiller is confirmed as a counselor to the Dukedom of Saxony. Against the advice of his friends, among whom Körner, he marries, almost in secrecy, Charlotte Lengefeld.
1791. He will be often sick, and would have to cease practicing his profession. It is during this time that he begins to dissect the ideology of Emmanuel Kant.
1793. He endeavours to summarize his latest philosophical research in his famous essays, “On Grace and Dignity”, “On the Sublime” and “On the aesthetic education of the human being”.1793. He finally returns to his homeland, 11 years after his escape, where his first son Charles would be born. He sees his father again, after so many long years.
1796. He writes, together with Goethe, the “Xenien”, and hence, prepares the groundwork for a national grouping of new, enlightened representatives.
1797. Schiller's prolific year where he would compose so many stunning ballads and songs. His interest for esoteric subjects would also increase due to his circle of friends in Iena. This interest would surprise many observers as he previously derided about Esoterism.
1798. His ballads, “The diver”, “The glove”.... are published in the “Muse's Almanac”. The acknowledgement of his talent as a poet is unanimous. It is from this year that his opponents become vocal, as they augur his inevitable rise to the higher sphere.
1799. He finishes “Wallenstein”, the story of the first person in History to become supreme commander of the armies and also political leader, and begins “Mary Stuart”. He earns additional recognition for the emotionally tense quality of his dramas. He settles with his family in Weimar, the center of the Saxon power.
1800. Schiller does not feel at ease in Weimar despite his intensive literary and theatrical work. The clouds of war are ever hovering over this city.
1802. He works on “William Tell”, his play about national emancipation, and “The bride of Messina”, his play about the reconciliation of religions and generations.
1804. “William Tell” is finished, and together with his family, they travel to Berlin where Schiller hopes to find a position at the center of the Prussian might.
1805. Upon his return to Weimar, Schiller throws himself into his theatrical and literary works, and experiences again terrible pains all over his body.On May 9th, he dies of several medical complications and would be buried in secrecy during the night of May 11th.After his death, many rumours about the whereabouts of his remains would circulate throughout the German-speaking world.Only in September
1827 would his remains be buried in a proper place in Weimar, 22 years after his death, due to the perseverance of his wife Charlotte and his friends, among whom, Streicher.Beethoven would dedicate his Ninth Symphony to him. Verdi would set into operas three of his plays. Schubert would also set into songs many of his poetic works. Freud would show an interest in his drawings, and their importance in his incredible capacity to have survived his difficult childhood and youth. Many other artists would devote their work to his relentless commitment to Freedom and Humanity.
In 2004, a DNA analysis of the remains buried in Leipzig near Goethe’s revealed dissimilarity with that of the other members of the Schiller family. The myth about his actual whereabouts became ever more alive among his admirers.