Test-Driven Development, Build Automation, Continuous Integration
Test-Driven Development, Build Automation, Continuous Integration
with Java, Eclipse and friends
About the Book
The main subject of this book is software testing. The main premise is that testing is a crucial part of software development. You need to make sure that the software you write behaves correctly. You can manually test your software. However, manual tests require lots of manual work and it is error prone.
On the contrary, this book focuses on automated tests, which can be done at several levels. In the book we will see a few types of tests, starting from those that test a single component in isolation to those that test the entire application. We will also deal with tests in the presence of a database and with tests that verify the correct behavior of the graphical user interface.
In particular, we will describe and apply the Test-Driven Development methodology, writing tests before the actual code.
Throughout the book we will use Java as the main programming language. We use Eclipse as the IDE. Both Java and Eclipse have a huge ecosystem of "friends", that is, frameworks, tools and plugins. Many of them are related to automated tests and perfectly fit the goals of the book. We will use JUnit throughout the book as the main Java testing framework.
it is also important to be able to completely automate the build process. In fact, another relevant subject of the book is Build Automation. We will use one of the mainstream tools for build automation in the Java world, Maven.
We will use Git as the Version Control System and GitHub as the hosting service for our Git repositories. We will then connect our code hosted on GitHub with a cloud platform for Continuous Integration. In particular, we will use Travis CI. With the Continuous Integration process, we will implement a workflow where each time we commit a change in our Git repository, the CI server will automatically run the automated build process, compiling all the code, running all the tests and possibly create additional reports concerning the quality of our code and of our tests.
The code quality of tests can be measured in terms of a few metrics using code coverage and mutation testing. Other metrics are based on static analysis mechanisms, inspecting the code in search of bugs, code smells and vulnerabilities. For such a static analysis we will use SonarQube and its free cloud version SonarCloud.
When we need our application to connect to a service like a database, we will use Docker a virtualization program, based on containers, that is much more lightweight than standard virtual machines. Docker will allow us to
configure the needed services in advance, once and for all, so that the services running in the containers will take part in the reproducibility of the whole build infrastructure. The same configuration of the services will be used in our development environment, during build automation and in the CI server.
Most of the chapters have a "tutorial" nature. Besides a few general explanations of the main concepts, the chapters will show lots of code. It should be straightforward to follow the chapters and write the code to reproduce the examples. All the sources of the examples are available on GitHub.
The main goal of the book is to give the basic concepts of the techniques and tools for testing, build automation and continuous integration. Of course, the descriptions of these concepts you find in this book are far from being exhaustive. However, you should get enough information to get started with all the presented techniques and tools.
- About the author
- Code of examples
- Install the JDK
- Book structure
- 1.1 Automated tests
- 1.2 Advantages of automated tests
1.3 Test-Driven Development (TDD)
- 1.3.1 Behavioral-Driven Development (BDD)
- 2.1 Eclipse workspace
- 2.2 Perspectives and views
- 2.3.1 Importing an existing project
- 2.3.2 Creating a new Java project
- 2.3.3 Open projects and closed projects
- 2.3.4 Automatic building
2.4 IDE tools
- 2.4.1 Content Assist
- 2.4.2 Quick Fix
- 2.4.3 Quick Assist
- 2.4.4 Editable proposals
- 2.4.5 The Source menu
- 2.5 Eclipse Preferences
- 2.6 Find Actions
2.7 Eclipse Shortcuts
- 2.7.1 Quick Search
- 2.8 Eclipse Run configurations
2.9 Browsing code
- 2.9.1 Outline
- 2.9.2 Navigate
- 2.9.3 Local History
- 2.10 Code Mining
- 3.1 Structure of a test
3.2 A first example
- 3.2.1 Exception testing
- 3.2.2 Other tests
- 3.2.3 Revising
3.3 External collaborators (dependencies)
- 3.3.1 Alternative implementations
- 3.4 Testing private methods?
3.5 Keep your tests clean and readable
- 3.5.1 Beware of code duplication removal in tests
3.6 Other testing libraries
- 3.6.1 Using Hamcrest matchers
- 3.6.2 Using AssertJ
3.7 Keeping test code separate from main code
- 3.7.1 Export a runnable JAR
4.1 Introduction to TDD
- 4.1.1 The Red-Green-Refactor cycle
- 4.1.2 The three laws of TDD
- 4.1.3 Remove duplication
4.2 The Transformation Priority Premise
- 4.2.1 A first example of TDD
4.3 Three strategies for the green state
- 4.3.1 The factorial example with TDD
- 4.4 Small or big steps?
- 4.5 Tests and induction (part 1)
- 4.6 Testing abstract classes?
- 4.7 Writing a test that succeeds
- 4.1 Introduction to TDD
5. Code coverage
- 5.1 JaCoCo and EclEmma
- 5.2 How code coverage can help
- 5.3 Code coverage percentage
6. Mutation Testing
- 6.1 A first example with PIT
- 6.2 Enabling additional mutators
6.3 Further experiments with PIT
- 6.3.1 Tests and induction (part 2)
- 6.3.2 Mutations and iterative solutions
- 6.3.3 Mutation testing on the MyStringUtils example
- 6.3.4 Mutation testing on the Bank example
- 6.4 Narrowing mutations
- 7.1 Introduction to Maven
- 7.2 Maven installation
7.3 Let’s get started with a Maven archetype
- 7.3.1 Create a Maven project from the command line
- 7.3.2 Import a Maven project in Eclipse
- 7.3.3 Create a Maven project from Eclipse using an archetype
- 7.4 Structure of a Maven project
- 7.5 Java settings
- 7.6.1 Maven coordinates (GAV)
- 7.6.2 Dependencies in the POM
- 7.6.3 SNAPSHOT
- 7.6.4 Version ranges
- 7.7 Eclipse m2e
- 7.8 Properties
- 7.9.1 Layout of an Eclipse project
- 7.9.2 Create a Maven project from Eclipse without an archetype
- 7.10 The Eclipse m2e pom.xml multi-tab editor
- 7.11 The bank example as a Maven project
7.12 Build with Maven
- 7.12.1 Maven lifecycles
- 7.12.2 Run Maven from the command line
- 7.12.3 Run Maven goals
- 7.12.4 Run Maven from Eclipse
- 7.12.5 Offline mode
- 7.12.6 Updating dependencies
7.13 Maven packaging
- 7.13.1 Packaging “jar”
- 7.13.2 Packaging “pom”
7.14 Parent and modules
- 7.14.1 Let’s create a parent project and a module project
- 7.14.2 Effective POM
- 7.14.3 Project aggregation and project inheritance
- 7.14.4 Build a single module
- 7.14.5 Dependency management
- 7.14.6 Bill of Material (BOM)
- 7.14.7 How Eclipse resolves the projects in the workspace
7.15 Configuring a Maven plugin
- 7.15.1 Configuring the Maven compiler plugin
- 7.15.2 Generate source and javadoc jars
- 7.15.3 Configuring the generated jar
- 7.15.4 Creating a FatJar
- 7.15.5 Plugin management
- 7.15.6 Configuring the PIT Maven plugin
- 7.15.7 Configuring the JaCoCo Maven plugin
- 7.16 Maven profiles
7.17 The bank example as a multi-module project
- 7.17.1 The bank BOM
- 7.17.2 The bank parent POM
- 7.17.3 The bankaccount project
- 7.17.4 The bank project
- 7.17.5 The bank report project
- 7.17.6 The bank app project
- 7.17.7 The aggregator project
- 7.18 Maven deploy
- 7.19 Maven wrapper
- 7.20 Beyond Java 8
- 7.21 Reproducibility in the build
- 8.1 Testing state and testing interactions
8.2 Mockito: an overview
- 8.2.1 Creating a mock
- 8.2.2 Method stubbing
- 8.2.3 Interaction verification
8.3 Mockito: a tutorial
- 8.3.1 Spy
- 8.3.2 Spying and stubbing
- 8.3.3 Stubbing and exceptions
- 8.3.4 Subsequent stubbing
- 8.3.5 Argument matchers
- 8.4 Alternative ways of initializing mocks and other elements
- 8.5 Mockito BDD style
8.6 Stubbing with answers
- 8.6.1 Another example: Transactions
- 8.7 Fakes
- 8.8 What to mock
9.1 Let’s start experimenting with Git
- 9.1.1 Create a git repository
- 9.1.2 Git configuration
- 9.1.3 States of the working tree
- 9.1.4 Perform a commit
- 9.1.5 Commit history
- 9.1.6 Ignore files and directories
- 9.1.7 Branches
- 9.1.8 Reset
- 9.1.9 Cherry-pick
- 9.1.10 Stash
9.2 Remote repositories
- 9.2.1 Bare repository
- 9.2.2 Adding a remote repository
- 9.2.3 Initialize an empty remote repository
- 9.2.4 Cloning a remote repository
- 9.2.5 Push and fetch
- 9.2.6 Rebasing
- 9.2.7 Pull requests
9.3 EGit (Git in Eclipse)
- 9.3.1 Add an Eclipse project to a new Git repository
- 9.3.2 The Git Repositories view
- 9.3.3 Importing an existing project
- 9.3.4 Branch operations
- 9.3.5 Cloning from Eclipse
- 9.4.1 Create a repository on GitHub
- 9.4.2 GitHub pull requests
- 9.4.3 Contributing to other projects
- 9.1 Let’s start experimenting with Git
10. Continuous Integration
- 10.1 Our running example
10.2 Travis CI
- 10.2.1 Configure the Travis build
- 10.2.2 Caching on Travis
- 10.2.3 Repository options
- 10.2.4 Testing against multiple JDKs
- 10.2.5 Testing against multiple operating systems
- 10.2.6 Building pull requests
- 10.2.7 Conditional builds
10.3 Code coverage with Coveralls
- 10.3.1 Coverage threshold
- 10.4 Badges
- 10.5 Reproducibility in CI
- 10.6 Further steps
- 11.1 Let’s get started with Docker
- 11.2 Run a server in a container
11.3 Dockerize a Java application
- 11.3.1 The Java application to dockerize
- 11.3.2 The Dockerfile
- 11.3.3 Build the Docker image from Maven
- 11.3.4 Using Docker in Travis CI
- 11.4 Docker networks
- 11.5 Docker compose
- 11.6 Docker in Eclipse
- 11.7 Push to DockerHub
- 11.8 Reproducibility in Docker
12. Integration tests
- 12.1 Our running example
12.2 Unit tests with databases
- 12.2.1 Mock the MongoClient?
- 12.2.2 Use an in-memory database
12.3 Integration tests
- 12.3.1 Source folder for integration tests
- 12.3.2 Integration tests with Docker and Testcontainers
- 12.3.3 Running integration tests with Maven
- 12.3.4 Integration tests with Docker and Maven
- 12.3.5 Running integration tests in Travis CI
- 12.4 Unit or integration tests?
13. UI tests
- 13.1 The running example
13.2 UI unit tests
- 13.2.1 Testing the GUI controls
- 13.2.2 Implementing the StudentView interface
- 13.2.3 Unit tests for the UI frame’s logic
- 13.3 Running UI tests in Travis CI
- 13.4 UI integration tests
- 13.5.1 Race conditions in the application
- 13.5.2 Race conditions in the database
- 13.6 Improvements
14. End-to-end tests
- 14.1 The running example
- 14.2 E2e tests for our application
14.3 BDD with Cucumber
- 14.3.1 Data tables
- 14.3.2 Step decoupling
- 14.3.3 High-level specifications
- 14.4 Starting from the high-level specifications
- 14.5 Change some low-level details
15. Code Quality
- 15.1 Using SonarQube locally
15.2 Analyze a project
- 15.2.1 False positives and rule exclusion
- 15.2.2 Analysis of test code
- 15.2.3 Security hotspots
- 15.2.4 Code coverage in SonarQube
- 15.2.5 JUnit reports
- 15.3 SonarCloud
- 15.4 SonarLint (IDE integration)
16. Learning tests
16.1 Dependency Injection with Google Guice
- 16.1.1 Guice main concepts
- 16.1.2 Singleton
- 16.1.3 Field and method injection
- 16.1.4 Providers
- 16.1.5 Binding annotations
- 16.1.6 Overriding bindings
- 16.1.7 Factories and AssistedInject
- 16.1.8 Cyclic dependencies
- 16.1.9 Provides
- 16.2 Apply our learnings
- 16.1 Dependency Injection with Google Guice
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