Managing Language Programs
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Managing Language Programs

Perspectives, Processes, and Practices

About the Book

Can you imagine this:

A group of Elders of families is meeting together. Among their concerns – the younger generation is actively embracing the new experiences that surround them, but at the same time especially leaving their original language behind. The Elders can see that their community is fracturing, their social network isn’t able to cope with economic, social, educational and political pressures from outside the community. They wisely recognize that some good things are also happening – better farming methods, some of their children have gotten better-paying jobs, and overall health is improving. But what about the effects of losing their heritage language and culture? From where can they get help to address this issue?

Local communities frequently find it challenging to implement a language development program especially when they are aware that language shift is happening in their families, villages, and towns. In times of social shift, community leaders also negotiate the uncertainties in the context, and the relatively low level of the capacity of the community to take an active role in the planning and management of programs.

This book presents a comprehensive approach called Managing for Language Development Results (MfLDR) for the planning and management of community-based initiatives that include some aspect of local language development.  It incorporates principles, processes, and practices that local community organizations and others can use whether they are the primary sponsors or participate as key stakeholders.

MfLDR is the result of the authors’ experiences over ten years reflecting, discussing with practitioners, teaching courses, conducting workshops, and consulting managers of language development programs in Africa, Eurasia, Asia, and North America. With MfLDR the authors bring together two broad developments that affect minority language communities. One, in the field of language development, focuses attention on the necessary conditions for sustainability of heritage languages. The other, in the domain of community development programs and projects, focuses attention on (a) the roles that communities fill in their own development efforts, and (b) planning and implementing result-oriented programs and projects.

This book provides a foundation and practical guide and resource for current and future planners, managers, and stakeholders of community-based development programs, especially those that include some aspect of language development of the local or heritage language. It can be used as a textbook, a resource for workshops and short courses, and a resource for administrators, program managers, project managers, and key stakeholders of programs.

This book is organized into four parts. Part 1 provides an overview and introduction to community-based language development, the context in which language development programs are implemented, and the discipline of management including program and project management. Part 2  presents the results oriented methodology and tools of MfLDR. A manager, a community-based organization, and its co-stakeholders can use it for (a) the identification and organization of the engagement of the appropriate stakeholders, (b) the identification of the desired changes a community desires to bring about, (c) the results-oriented planning of programs and associated projects to bring about those changes, and {d} the development of tools for use in the management of the implementation of the plans. Part 3 focuses on the organization of the management of programs and projects, and the processes and practices of Project Managers, Program Managers, and Administrative level Managers. Part 4 includes Appendices and a glossary of terminology.

This, the latest draft of the Managing Language Programs textbook, is not yet in its final state. Please let us know if you find sentences that are not clear or instances of faulty reasoning. We would also appreciate help with finding more examples, whether a personal communication that you would be willing to share, or tell us about a good example in the published literature and include the bibliographic citation so we can find it.

About the Authors

Tom Marmor
Thomas Marmor

Thomas Marmor served for 30 years in several roles in West Africa. For 20 years he managed a language development program for a large people group, then for another decade as the director of language programs in the same region.

Since 2004 he has served at the international level as trainer and consultant in language program management.

Eric Bartels
Eric Bartels

Eric Bartels is currently serving as adjunct faculty at the Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics in Dallas.  For the past eleven years, he has been teaching the graduate level Language Programs Design and Management course, along with other courses.

Prior to taking up that position he worked as regional director for SIL in both Eastern Europe and in West Africa.

Eric holds an MA in Applied Linguistics from the University of Texas Arlington.

He maintains a deep interest in coaching others to better program management practices.

Table of Contents

      • Boxes
      • Figures
      • Tables
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • How to Use This Book
    • Abbreviations
    • Chapter 1 Managing Language Programs: Perspectives, Processes, and Practices
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 How this book is organized
  • Part 1 - Foundational Concepts
    • Chapter 2 Community-Based Language Development Programs: The Why and How
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Community-based language development
      • 2.3 Characteristics of community-based language development
      • 2.4 Programs and projects
      • 2.5 Language development programs
      • 2.6 Summary
    • Chapter 3 Context of Language Development Programs
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Language communities
      • 3.3 The internal context
      • 3.4 The external context
      • 3.5 Summary
    • Chapter 4 Program and Project Management: The discipline of management
      • 4.1 Introduction
      • 4.2 Discipline of management
      • 4.3 Characteristics of management
      • 4.4 What managers do
      • 4.5 Management cycle
      • 4.7 Summary
  • Part 2 — Managing for Language Development Results (MfLDR)
    • Chapter 5 Managing for Language Development Results (MfLDR): An Introduction
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 The genesis of Managing for Language Development Results (MfLDR)
      • 5.3 Managing for Language Development Results (MfLDR)
      • 5.4 Summary
    • Chapter 6 MfLDR Part 1: Program Identification Phase
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Initiating language development programs
      • 6.3 The Identification Phase
      • 6.4 Context Analysis
      • 6.5 Stakeholder Analysis
      • 6.6 Partnership development
      • 6.7 Capacity development
      • 6.8 Program identification
      • 6.9 SWOT Analysis
      • 6.10 Summary
    • Chapter 7 MfLDR Part 2: Introduction to planning for results
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 What is a result?
      • 7.3 Results plan
      • 7.4 Results Framework – putting all the information together
      • 7.5 Summary
      • 7.6 Example of a Proposed Program Results Chain
    • Chapter 8 MfLDR Part 3: Planning the Results Chain
      • 8.1 Introduction
      • 8.2 Planning for results
      • 8.3 Using SUM in planning
      • 8.4 Planning language development initiatives
      • 8.5 Example of planning an initiative
      • 8.6 Planning the first program for the initiative
      • 8.7 Summary
    • Chapter 9 MfLDR Part 4: Program Risk Management
      • 9.1 Introduction
      • 9.2 Risk management
      • 9.3 Assumptions
      • 9.4 Results Chain: A hypothesis based on assumptions
      • 9.5 Program risk analysis
      • 9.6 Managing the program risks
      • 9.7 Summary
    • Chapter 10 MfLDR Part 5: Monitoring (Performance Measurement)
      • 10.1 Introduction
      • 10.2 Monitoring
      • 10.3 Indicators
      • 10.4 Collecting and processing indicator data
      • 10.5 Planning the results monitoring process
      • 10.6 Summary
    • Chapter 11 MfLDR Part 6: The Results Framework and Verification of the Results Plan
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Results Framework
      • 11.3 Verification of the Results Plan
      • 11.4 Summary
    • Chapter 12 MfLDR Part 7: Operational Plans Part 1– Work Breakdown Structures and Gantt Charts
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
      • 12.3 Gantt charts
      • 12.4 Uses of Gantt charts
      • 12.5 Summary
    • Chapter 13 MfLDR Part 8: Operational Plans Part 2
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Results Monitoring Plan for a program
      • 13.3 Program Risk Monitoring Plan
      • 13.4 Stakeholder Engagement Plan
      • 13.5 Personnel Plan
      • 13.6 Reviews, documentation, and reports
      • 13.7 Budget: income and expenses
      • 13.8 Summary
    • Chapter 14. MfLDR Part 9: Program Evaluation
      • 14.1 Introduction
      • 14.2 Program evaluation
      • 14.3 Preparation for the evaluation of a program
      • 14.5 Use of Information from the evaluation of a program
      • 14.6 Summary
  • Part 3 — Structures, Processes, and Practices for Managing Language Programs
    • Chapter 15 Organizational Structures for Managing Language Programs
      • 15.1 Introduction
      • 15.2 Management structures for language programs
      • 15.3 Organizational structures for language development programs
      • 15.4 Characteristics of stakeholder organizations of language development programs
      • 15.5 Summary
    • Chapter 16 Project Manager and Project Management
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Selection and qualifications of project managers
      • 16.3 Project manager assignments
      • 16.5 Managing a portfolio of projects
      • 16.6 Summary
    • Chapter 17 Program Manager and Program Management
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Selection and qualification of an MPP
      • 17.3 Responsibilities of an MPP
      • 17.4 Processes and practices
      • 17.5 Planning the next program in an initiative
      • 17.6 Managing a portfolio of programs
      • 17.7 Summary
    • Chapter 18 Administrative Level Management
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Administrator for Programs and Partnerships (APP)
      • 18.3 APP in Organizations Which Implement Language Development Initiatives
      • 18.4 APP in a supportive organization
      • 18.5 Summary
    • Chapter 19 Responses to Difficult Situations and Other Issues in the Management of Language Programs
      • 19.1 Introduction
      • 19.2 Program identification in multilingual contexts
      • 19.3 Changes to the scope of a program or project
      • 19.4 Funding and budgets
      • 19.5 Changes in the context
      • 19.6 Stakeholders
      • 19.7 Performance of Managers and Staff
      • 19.8 Working with consultants and experts
      • 19.9 Government language policy and actual practice
      • 19.10 Summary
  • Part 4 — Appendices
      • EGIDS and FAMED Conditions
      • Components of a Complete Program Plan using MfLDR
      • Initiating Community-Based Language Development
      • Guide for Collecting Information on the Context
      • Stakeholder Roles and Participation in Each Phase of the Program Management Cycle
      • Resources for Program Evaluations
      • Job Descriptions
      • Example of a Standard Job Description for Manager of Programs and Partnerships
      • Example of a Standard Job Description for Language Project Manager
      • General Competencies Assessment Tool for Managers in Language Program Management
      • Guide a Project Performance Review
      • Guide for Program Performance Reviews
    • Appendix K
      • Guide for Drafting an Agreement with a Consultant or Expert
    • Glossary of Terminology
    • References
    • Expanded Table of Contents
  • Notes

About the Publisher

This book is published on Leanpub by Pike Center

Pike Center for Integrative Scholarship is an initiative of SIL International that builds capacity for language development through scholarship. SIL works alongside ethnolinguistic communities as they discover how language development addresses the challenging areas of their daily lives—social, cultural, political, economic and spiritual.

One of Pike Center’s strategies for building capacity is to grow the needed bodies of knowledge through its Agile Publishing program. We are using this lean publishing platform to give our affiliated scholars a platform for developing and refining new contributions to growing bodies of knowledge that support the language development movement. Many of our titles are still in a preliminary stage of development. Others are finished but have such a narrow audience that we have not elected to turn them into print books. Still others have reached the maturity of becoming a print book; in such cases, this is indicated by a link on the landing page for the book.

All of the revenues generated through sales on this site are directed to the Pike Center to support the on-going research activities of its affiliated scholars. Naming a higher price when you purchase one of our books is a way of contributing to this cause. Or you may go to the Pike Center website to make a donation that will receive a tax-deductible receipt.

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