Java Persistence Performance Illustrated Guide
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Java Persistence Performance Illustrated Guide

About the Book

This book covers the most common and dangerous performance issues related to the persistence layer: Hibernate, JPA, SQL, JDBC and Hazelcast (check out the book sample). Each performance recipe has a short and condensed description and a "handmade" image that will expose the issue and the potential approaches to avoid it.

About the Author

Anghel Leonard
Anghel Leonard

Anghel Leonard is a CA interested in Java performance

Table of Contents




SQL statement lifecycle

Avoid DDL generation in production


Using functions in the WHERE clause

Why the index column order matters

Primary key vs. Unique key

LIKE vs. equal (=)

LIKE wildcards usage

UNION vs. UNION ALL and JOIN flavors

RDBMS Headlines


Master-slave replication

Multi-master replication


Throughput and response time


JDBC DriverManager and DataSource

Using a connection pool

Spring post-commit hooks and connection release

Detect database connection leaks

Little's law

Result Set

Limit the result set

Result set scrollability


Atomicity (ACID)

Consistency (ACID)

Isolation (ACID)

Durability (ACID)

Transaction rollback


Non-repeatable reads vs. repeatable reads

Two-phase locking (2PL)

Dirty read

Dirty write

Lost update

Phantom read

Read skew

Write skew

Read Uncommitted

Read Committed

Repeatable Reads


JPA & Hibernate


Choose between identifiers generation strategies

The equals() and hashCode() methods

The hi/lo algorithm

Hibernate natural id (@NaturalId)



Hibernate simple SELECT

Using Criteria API

Hibernate and SQL native queries

Show and slow SQLs

Spring redundant save() call

Java 8 Date/Time mapping

Store date, time and timestamps in UTC time zone

7 Ways to delete objects with Hibernate

The JDBC, java.sql.Statement

The JDBC, java.sql.PreparedStatement

Fetching and Loading

Hibernate attributes lazy fetching

Hibernate and JPA fetching entities

Hibernate fetching size

Hibernate loading entities

Direct fetching

Fetching a Proxy reference

Populating a child-side parent association via Proxy

Read only data

Index scan in offset and seek (paging)



Streaming results via Java 8 and Spring Data JPA 1.8

Using Optional in entities


Hibernate batching

Bulk vs. batch

Hibernate setup batching

PostgreSQL (BIG)SERIAL and batching inserts


JPA & Hibernate entity state transitions

Hibernate auto flush

Hibernate dirty checking

Hibernate flushing order

JPA @EntityListeners with callbacks


The bidirectional @OneToMany association

JPA/Hibernate @MapsId and unidirectional @OneToOne

Using collection relationships


@OneToMany association and insert entities

@OneToMany association and delete entities

6 Best practices for one-to-many and many-to-one associations

Many-to-many and cascade type

Unidirectional @ManyToMany

Unidirectional @ManyToMany Persist & Remove

Bidirectional @ManyToMany

The Open Session in View Anti-Pattern


JPA Single Table Inheritance Strategy

JPA Joined Subclass Inheritance Strategy

JPA Table per Class Inheritance Strategy



Read-only transactions in Spring and Hibernate

Hibernate 5.2.10 get connection as needed

Use @Transactional on repository or on service

Use explicit transactions even for read-only statements


Optimistic locking



Pessimistic Locking in UPDATE, DELETE and INSERT


Hibernate second level cache concurrency strategies

Immutable entities and Second Level Cache (SLC)


Hibernate LazyInitializationException






Anomalies in microservices sagas

Semantic Lock

Commutative Updates

Reread Value

Version File



Generating cluster-wide unique IDs

Distributed Map

Hazlecast in-memory format

The 12 IMap performance tips


Hazelcast pessimistic locking

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