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### Introduction to Mechanical Engineering Science

###### A solid foundation of sound engineering principles, analysis and technical problem-solving skills

This textbook is intended for students who are in the first or second year of a typical college or university program in mechanical engineering or a closely related field. Throughout the chapters of this book, I attempted to balance the treatments of technical problem-solving skills, engineering principles and analysis with numerous worked examples. Practice exercises are also included for you to test your understanding of each topic treated in the book.

The book begins with scalar and vector quantities in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 you will study dynamics. You will learn rectilinear motion of particles, basic equations of motion, displacement, speed, velocity, acceleration, torque, Newton's laws of motion, principles of conservation of energy, momentum and different types of forces. You will also be introduced to the concept of work, energy and power.

In Chapter 3, we will return to statics. We will look at moments and frictional forces. You will learn the laws of Friction, friction on an inclined plane, tractive resistance, and application of friction to brakes and bearings. In Chapter 4, we will move on to circular motion. You will learn about motion in a circle and centripetal force with worked examples.

In Chapter 5, you will study mechanical oscillations. You will learn simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance.

In Chapter 6, we will look at the principles of machine, such as mechanical advantage, velocity ratio (speed ratio) and efficiency. You will learn with worked examples application of machines, such as the inclined plane, screw jack, wheel and axle, the hydraulic press, gear trains, the worm wheel, belt tension and belt slip.

Chapter 7 is all about fluid at rest. We will look at pressure at a depth in a fluid, pressure measuring instruments, atmospheric pressure, pressure gauges, surface tension and Archimedes’ principle with worked examples. Chapters 8 is dedicated to fluid dynamics. We will look at properties of fluid such as density, viscosity, turbulent flow, Bernoulli’s equation and momentum of fluid with worked examples.

In Chapter 9, you will study energy and its uses, and different sources of energy, such as solar, wind. water and biofuels. You will also learn about thermal power station, hydroelectric power station, and so on.

In Chapter 10, I provide a link to download a bunch of practice exercises and answers, and other training resources. You can use them for quick references and revision as well. So, everything you need to help you in your study is here in this book. This will give you more problem-solving and analytical skills. It will also help you to learn some of the calculations and estimates or approximations that mechanical engineers can perform as they solve technical problems and communicate their results. For mechanical engineers to accomplish their jobs better and faster, they combine science, mathematics, computer-aided engineering tools, hands-on skills and experience. My support link is also included in this book for you to contact me any time if you need further help.

Finally, please note that after studying this book, you will not be an expert in mechanical engineering. That is not my intention of writing this book, and it should not be yours for reading it. If my objective has been met, however, you will acquire a solid foundation of problem-solving and analytical skills, which just might form the basis for your own future contributions to the mechanical engineering profession.

• ### Categories

• Engineering
• Physics
• ### Feedback

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A. B. Lawal

I am multi-talented. As a computer engineer and a computer scientist, I have over 15 years of teaching experience in software development and computer hardware architecture. I am the CEO of Ojula Technology Innovations, a book publishing company. I co-publish my books with Charles H. Johnson who also offers technical assistance to my company. In the last few years I have helped the IT industry develop various useful programs on Windows, MacOS and PLCs (programmable logic controllers).

I always build solutions from scratch and go as far as modifying open source software to meet my client’s needs. As an embedded systems expert, I design embedded Systems that optimize performance and cost against complex requirements. I leverage Stratify OS (a POSIX like RTOS for micro-controllers) to quickly and cost-effectively develop complex firmware applications in Python and C/C++ languages. I work with a dedicated team of Python programmers who look into specific automation problems and proffer solutions to them.

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• Preface to First Edition
• Purpose
• Approach and Content
• 1. Statics
• 1.1 Introduction to Mechanics
• 1.1.1 Representation of Vectors
• 1.2 Addition and Subtraction of Vectors
• 1.2.1 Parallelogram Law of Vector Addition
• 1.3 Resolution of Vectors
• 1.4 Force
• 1.5 Equilibrium and Stability
• 1.5.1 Types of Equilibrium
• 1.6 Triangle of Forces
• 1.6.1 Experiment to Verify Triangle of Forces
• 1.7 Coplanar Forces, Concurrent Forces and Couple
• 1.7.1 Conditions of Equilibrium
• 1.7.2 Equilibrant and Couple
• 1.8 Polygon of Forces
• 1.9 Center of Gravity and Center of Mass
• 1.9.1 How to Locate the Center of Gravity of a Non-uniform Body
• 1.10. Types of Supports, Joints and Reactions
• 1.11 Tension, Compression, Stress and Strain
• 1.11.1 Tension and Compression
• 1.11.2 Hooke’s Law
• 2.1 Rectilinear Motion of a Particle
• 2.1.1 Uniform Rectilinear Motion
• 2.2 Newton’s Laws of Motion
• 2.3 Air Resistance and Terminal Velocity
• 2.4 Impulse and Momentum
• 2.5 Work, Energy and Power
• 2.6 Kinetic and Potential Energy
• 2.7 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
• 3. Moments and Frictional Forces
• 3.1 Moment of a Force
• 3.1.1 Moment of a Couple (Torque)
• 3.1.2 Equilibrium of Coplanar Forces
• 3.2 Friction
• 3.2.1 Laws of Friction
• 3.2.2 Coefficients of friction
• 3.2.3 Nature of friction
• 3.2.4. Applications and Methods of Reducing Friction
• 4. Circular Motion
• 4.1 Introduction to Circular Motion
• 4.2 Centripetal Force
• 4.2.1 Rounding a Bend
• 4.3 More Examples of Circular Motion
• 4.3.1 The Rotor
• 4.3.2 Looping the Loop
• 4.3.3 Centrifuges
• 4.3.4. Moment of Inertia
• 5. Mechanical Oscillations
• 5.1. Introduction
• 5.2 Simple Harmonic Motion
• 5.2.1 Equations of S.H.M.
• 5.2.2 Mass on a Spring
• 5.2.3 Simple Pendulum
• 5.2.4 Energy of S. H. M.
• 5.3 Damped and Undamped Oscillations
• 5.4 Forced Oscillation and Resonance
• 5.4.1 Barton's Pendulums
• 5.4.3 Examples of Resonance
• 5.4.4 Quality Factor Q
• 6. Machines
• 6.1 Mechanical Advantage of Simple Machines
• 6.2 The Lever
• 6.2.1 Mechanical Advantage of a Lever
• 6.2.2 Types of Levers
• 6.2.3 Applications and Uses of Levers
• 6.3 Pulleys
• 6.3.1 Real-life Applications of Pulleys
• 6.3.2 Types of Pulleys
• 6.3.3 Belt Drives: Tension and Slip
• 6.4 Velocity Ratio of Simple Machines
• 6.5 Efficiency of Simple Machines
• 6.6 The Inclined Plane
• 6.7 The Screw Jack
• 6.8 The Wheel and Axle
• 6.9 Gears and Gear Trains
• 6.9.1 Simple Gears
• 6.9.2 Bevel gears
• 6.9.3 Worm Gears
• 6.9.4 Rack and Pinion
• 6.10 The Hydraulic Press
• 6.10.1 The Working Principle of the Hydraulic Press Machine
• 7. Fluids at Rest
• 7.1 Pressure in a Liquid
• 7.1.1 Expression for Liquid Pressure
• 7.1.2 Transmission of Pressure: The Hydraulic Principle
• 7.1.3 High-Pressure Water-Jet Cutting
• 7.2 Liquid Columns
• 7.2.1 U-tube Manometer
• 7.2.2 Balancing Liquid Columns
• 7.3 Archimedes' Principle
• 7.3.1 Floating Bodies
• 7.3.2 Hydrometer
• 7.4 Atmospheric Pressure
• 7.5 Pressure Gauges and Vacuum Pumps
• 7.5.1 Bourdon Gauge
• 7.5.2 Rotary Vacuum Pump
• 7.6 Surface Tension
• 7.6.1 Some Effects of Surface Tension
• 7.6.2 Definition and Unit
• 7.6.3 Molecular Explanation
• 7.7 Liquid Surfaces
• 7.7.1 Shape of Liquid Surfaces
• 7.7.2 Practical Applications of Spreading
• 7.8 Capillarity
• 7.9 Bubbles and Drops
• 7.10 Surface Energy
• 8. Fluids in Motion
• 8.1 Introduction to Fluid Dynamics
• 8.2 Viscosity
• 8.3 Steady and Turbulent Flow
• 8.4 Motion in a Fluid
• 8.5 Bernoulli's Equation
• 8.6 Applications of Bernoulli
• 8.6.1 Jets and Nozzles
• 8.6.2 Spinning Ball
• 8.6.3 Aerofoil/Airfoil
• 8.7 Flowmeters
• 8.7.1 Venturi Meter
• 8.7.2 Pitot Tube
• 8.8 Fluid Flow Calculations
• 9. Energy and its Uses
• 9.1.1 Conservation of Energy
• 9.1.3 Units of Energy
• 9.2 Energy Sources
• 9.2.1 Finite Sources of Energy
• 9.2.2 Renewable Sources
• 9.2.3 Energy Densityv
• 9.2.4 Energy Source Availability
• 9.3 Energy Transfer
• 9.4 Energy Consumption
• 9.4.1 Patterns of Consumption
• 9.4.2 Growth of Demand
• 9.5 Energy Use in the UK
• 9.6 Thermal Power Stations
• 9.6.1 Action
• 9.6.2 Efficiency
• 9.6.3 Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
• 9.7 Fuels and Pollution
• 9.7.1 Fossil-fuel Power Stations
• 9.7.2 Nuclear Power Stations
• 9.8 Hydroelectric Power Stations
• 9.8.1 Action
• 9.8.2 Efficiency
• 9.8.3 Pumped Storage
• 9.8.4 Further Points
• 9.9 Solar Energy
• 9.9.1 Nature
• 9.9.2 Solar Constant
• 9.10 Solar Devices
• 9.10.1 Passive Solar Heating
• 9.10.2 Active Solar Heating
• 9.10.3 Photovoltaic Devices (Solar Cells)
• 9.11 Wind Energy
• 9.11.1 Power of the Wind
• 9.11.2 Wind Turbines
• 9.12 Water Power
• 9.12.1 Wave Energy
• 9.12.2 Tidal Energy
• 9.13 Biofuels
• 9.13.1 Biomass
• 9.13.2 Biofuel Production
• 9.13.3 Biofuels and their Uses
• 9.14 Geothermal Energy
• 9.14.1 Hot aquifers
• 9.14.2 Hot Dry Rocks
• 9.15 Energy Losses from Buildings: U-Values
• 9.15.1 U-value
• 9.16 Ventilation
• 10. More Training Resources
• 11. Congrats and Next Steps
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