Interface Evolution (English Version)
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Interface Evolution (English Version)

The History of the Computer from the Perspective of its User Interface

About the Book

This book is a translation into English of Interface Evolution which was originally written in Deutsch.

About the Author

Felix Winkelnkemper
Felix Winkelnkemper

Felix Winkelnkemper ist Wissenschaftler am Heinz Nixdorf Institut der Universität Paderborn. Er promovierte dort mit einer Arbeit mit dem Titel "Responsive Positioning". Seine wissenschaftlichen Interessen liegen in den Gebieten Software-Ergonomie, Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion und digitalen Medien.

Table of Contents

  •  
    • Imprint and notes on further use
  • Preface
  • From the ENIAC to the Minicomputer
    • The Early Computers
      • Programming through wiring
      • Programmes as independent artefacts
      • Stored Program - The programme in the computer
    • Jobs and Batches
      • Batch processing
      • Higher programming languages
    • Early Real-Time Systems
      • Land consolidation: Zuse Z11
      • Accounting: IBM 305 RAMAC and IBM 1401
      • Flight booking: SABRE
      • Science and technology: LGP-30
      • Interactivity on large computers - UNIVAC I
    • Shared Time
      • Virtual objects
      • The time-sharing application par excellence: The editor
      • Virtual objects: Interactive object manipulation
    • Terminals Instead of Teleprinters
      • Terminals and spatial objects
      • Dumb and smart terminals
      • Direct manipulation: Visual editors
    • Experimental Graphical Systems
      • Whirlwind and SAGE
      • TX-0 and TX-2
      • The legacy of SAGE, Sketchpad and Co.
    • Minicomputers
  • Personal Computers
    • On to the Altair!
      • The Altair 8800 - The wonder box
      • Front panel programming - bits to touch
      • Punched tape - programmes from the roll
      • BASIC - Programming interactive
      • Performance: Terminal and Cassette
      • Floppy disks - more than just fast and random
      • CP/M - The operating system
      • WordStar - The Killer App
    • The 1977 Trinity
    • Small Computers in the Office
      • Apple II and VisiCalc
      • CP/M on the Apple II - The computer within the computer
      • IBM’s path to the personal computer
      • The software makes the difference!
    • The Home Computers of the 8-Bit Era
      • The Commodore 64 (C64)
    • Desks with Windows
      • The pointing device - The history of the mouse
      • The Experiment - The Xerox Alto
      • The World in Windows - The Smalltalk Environment
      • The Desktop - Xerox Star and Apple Lisa
    • Windows for the Home
      • Apple Macintosh - The Little One
      • Atari ST - The Versatile
      • Commodore Amiga - The Multimedia
      • Multitasking and windows on the IBM PC
    • Windows and MacOS
      • MacOS - The Desktop and the Finder
      • Microsoft Windows - A Failure?
      • Windows 3 - Windows comes of age
      • MacOS 7 - The zenith of the classic operating system
      • Windows 95 - The connection of the two worlds
      • MacOS X (10) - MacOS reinvented
      • MacOS 10.7 - Implicit saving causes confusion
      • Windows 8 - The Failed Experiment
    • Unix and Linux
      • From Multics to Unics - The Early History
      • To each his Unix - The fragmentation
      • The Power of the Command Line - The Unix Shell
      • X-Window System - Unix can also be graphically
  • From the PDA to the Smartphone
    • Computers en Route
      • Mobile Personal Computer
      • Pocket computer
      • Early PDAs
    • Personal Digital Assistants
      • Newton MessagePad - The Pioneer
      • Palm Pilot - The Reliable
      • Windows CE - The Conventional
    • Smartphones
      • Early smartphones
      • Smartphone rethought
  • Notes

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