Interface Evolution (English Version)
Minimum price
Suggested price

Interface Evolution (English Version)

The History of the Computer from the Perspective of its User Interface

About the Book

This book is a translation into English of Interface Evolution which was originally written in German.

About the Author

Felix Winkelnkemper
Felix Winkelnkemper

Felix Winkelnkemper ist Wissenschaftler am Heinz Nixdorf Institut der Universität Paderborn. Er promovierte dort mit einer Arbeit mit dem Titel "Responsive Positioning". Seine wissenschaftlichen Interessen liegen in den Gebieten Software-Ergonomie, Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion und digitalen Medien.

Table of Contents

    • Imprint and notes on further use
  • Preface
  • From the ENIAC to the Minicomputer
    • The Early Computers
      • Programming through wiring
      • Programmes as independent artefacts
      • Stored Program - The programme in the computer
    • Jobs and Batches
      • Batch processing
      • Higher programming languages
    • Early Real-Time Systems
      • Land consolidation: Zuse Z11
      • Accounting: IBM 305 RAMAC and IBM 1401
      • Flight booking: SABRE
      • Science and technology: LGP-30
      • Interactivity on large computers - UNIVAC I
    • Shared Time
      • Virtual objects
      • The time-sharing application par excellence: The editor
      • Virtual objects: Interactive object manipulation
    • Terminals Instead of Teleprinters
      • Terminals and spatial objects
      • Dumb and smart terminals
      • Direct manipulation: Visual editors
    • Experimental Graphical Systems
      • Whirlwind and SAGE
      • TX-0 and TX-2
      • The legacy of SAGE, Sketchpad and Co.
    • Minicomputers
  • Personal Computers
    • On to the Altair!
      • The Altair 8800 - The wonder box
      • Front panel programming - bits to touch
      • Punched tape - programmes from the roll
      • BASIC - Programming interactive
      • Performance: Terminal and Cassette
      • Floppy disks - more than just fast and random
      • CP/M - The operating system
      • WordStar - The Killer App
    • The 1977 Trinity
    • Small Computers in the Office
      • Apple II and VisiCalc
      • CP/M on the Apple II - The computer within the computer
      • IBM’s path to the personal computer
      • The software makes the difference!
    • The Home Computers of the 8-Bit Era
      • The Commodore 64 (C64)
    • Desks with Windows
      • The pointing device - The history of the mouse
      • The Experiment - The Xerox Alto
      • The World in Windows - The Smalltalk Environment
      • The Desktop - Xerox Star and Apple Lisa
    • Windows for the Home
      • Apple Macintosh - The Little One
      • Atari ST - The Versatile
      • Commodore Amiga - The Multimedia
      • Multitasking and windows on the IBM PC
    • Windows and MacOS
      • MacOS - The Desktop and the Finder
      • Microsoft Windows - A Failure?
      • Windows 3 - Windows comes of age
      • MacOS 7 - The zenith of the classic operating system
      • Windows 95 - The connection of the two worlds
      • MacOS X (10) - MacOS reinvented
      • MacOS 10.7 - Implicit saving causes confusion
      • Windows 8 - The Failed Experiment
    • Unix and Linux
      • From Multics to Unics - The Early History
      • To each his Unix - The fragmentation
      • The Power of the Command Line - The Unix Shell
      • X-Window System - Unix can also be graphically
  • From the PDA to the Smartphone
    • Computers en Route
      • Mobile Personal Computer
      • Pocket computer
      • Early PDAs
    • Personal Digital Assistants
      • Newton MessagePad - The Pioneer
      • Palm Pilot - The Reliable
      • Windows CE - The Conventional
    • Smartphones
      • Early smartphones
      • Smartphone rethought
  • Notes

The Leanpub 60-day 100% Happiness Guarantee

Within 60 days of purchase you can get a 100% refund on any Leanpub purchase, in two clicks.

See full terms

80% Royalties. Earn $16 on a $20 book.

We pay 80% royalties. That's not a typo: you earn $16 on a $20 sale. If we sell 5000 non-refunded copies of your book or course for $20, you'll earn $80,000.

(Yes, some authors have already earned much more than that on Leanpub.)

In fact, authors have earnedover $12 millionwriting, publishing and selling on Leanpub.

Learn more about writing on Leanpub

Free Updates. DRM Free.

If you buy a Leanpub book, you get free updates for as long as the author updates the book! Many authors use Leanpub to publish their books in-progress, while they are writing them. All readers get free updates, regardless of when they bought the book or how much they paid (including free).

Most Leanpub books are available in PDF (for computers) and EPUB (for phones, tablets and Kindle). The formats that a book includes are shown at the top right corner of this page.

Finally, Leanpub books don't have any DRM copy-protection nonsense, so you can easily read them on any supported device.

Learn more about Leanpub's ebook formats and where to read them

Write and Publish on Leanpub

You can use Leanpub to easily write, publish and sell in-progress and completed ebooks and online courses!

Leanpub is a powerful platform for serious authors, combining a simple, elegant writing and publishing workflow with a store focused on selling in-progress ebooks.

Leanpub is a magical typewriter for authors: just write in plain text, and to publish your ebook, just click a button. (Or, if you are producing your ebook your own way, you can even upload your own PDF and/or EPUB files and then publish with one click!) It really is that easy.

Learn more about writing on Leanpub