How to Design GPS/GNSS Receivers
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How to Design GPS/GNSS Receivers

The Principles, Applications & Markets

About the Book

The objective of this book is to provide you the reader a complete systems engineering treatment of GNSS. I am an expert with practical experience in GPS/GNSS design and similar areas that are addressed within the book. I provide a thorough, in-depth treatment of each topic.

Within this book, updated information on GPS and GLONASS is presented. In particular, descriptions of new satellites, such as GPS III and GLONASS K2 and their respective signal sets (e.g., GPS III L1C and GLONASS L3OC), are included.

There are in-depth technical descriptions of each emerging satellite navigation system: BeiDou, Galileo, QZSS, and NavIC. Dedicated chapters cover each system's constellation configuration, satellites, ground control system and user equipment. Detailed satellite signal characteristics are also provided.

Recently, I've heard from many engineers that they learned how GPS receivers work from this title. In this title, the design is included, and treatment of receivers is updated and expanded in several important ways. New material has been added on important receiver components, such as antennas and front-end electronics. The increased complexity of multiconstellation, multifrequency receivers, which are rapidly becoming the norm today, is addressed in detail. Other added features of this title are the clear step-by-step design process and associated trades required to develop a GNSS receiver, depending on the specific receiver application.

This subject will be of great value to those readers who need to understand these concepts, either for their own design tasks or to aid their satellite navigation system engineering knowledge. To round out the discussion of receivers, updated treatments of interference, ionospheric scintillation, and multipath are provided along with new material on blockage from foliage, terrain, and man-made structures.

Now there has been major developments in GNSS augmentations, including differential GNSS (DGNSS) systems, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques, and the use of external sensors/networks. The numerous deployed or planned satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) networks are detailed, including WAAS, EGNOS, MSAS, GAGAN, and SDCM, as are groundbased differential systems used for various applications.

The use of PPP techniques has greatly increased in recent years, and the treatment in this title has been expanded accordingly. Material addressing integration of GNSS with other sensors has been thoroughly revamped, as has the treatment of network assistance as needed to reflect the evolution from 2G/3G to 4G cellular systems that now rely on multiconstellation GNSS receiver engines.

While this title has generally been written for the engineering/scientific community, one of the series is devoted to GNSS markets and applications. Marketing projections (and the challenge thereof) are enumerated and discussion of the major applications is provided.

This book is structured such that a reader with a general science background can learn the basics of GNSS. The reader with a stronger engineering/scientific background will be able to delve deeper and benefit from the more in-depth technical material. It is this ramp-up of mathematical/technical complexity along with the treatment of key topics that enables this publication to serve as a student text as well as a reference source.

About the Author

Bolakale Aremu
Bolakale Aremu

My name is Bolakale Aremu. I am multi-talented. As a computer engineer and a computer scientist, I have over 15 years of teaching experience in software development and computer hardware architecture. I am the CEO of AB Publisher LLC, a media publishing company. In the last few years I have helped the IT industry develop various useful programs on Windows, MacOS and PLCs (programmable logic controllers).

I always build solutions from scratch and go as far as modifying open source software to meet my client’s needs. As an embedded systems expert, I design embedded Systems that optimize performance and cost against complex requirements. I leverage Stratify OS (a POSIX like RTOS for micro-controllers) to quickly and cost-effectively develop complex firmware applications in Python and C/C++ languages. I work with a dedicated team of Python programmers who look into specific automation problems and proffer solutions to them.

For any inquiry, you can contact us with any of the email addresses below any time. If you want to contribute your knowledge to this website, or if you have a request, just send us your message. We promise to do our best to help.

Bolakale Aremu (CEO), Founder,

Table of Contents

  • Objective of This Book
  • Terms of Use
  • Preface
  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1 Navigation
  • 1.2 GNSS Overview
  • 1.3 Global Positioning System
  • 1.4 Russian GLONASS System
  • 1.5 Galileo Satellite System
  • 1.6 Chinese BeiDou System
  • 1.7 Regional Systems
  • 1.8 Augmentations
  • 1.9 Markets and Applications
  • 1.10 Organization of the Book
  • References
  • 2. Fundamentals of Satellite Navigation
  • 2.1 Concept of Ranging Using Time-of-Arrival Measurements
  • 2.2 Reference Coordinate Systems
  • 2.3 Fundamentals of Satellite Orbits
  • 2.4 GNSS Signals
  • 2.5 Positioning Determination Using Ranging Codes
  • 2.6 Obtaining User Velocity
  • 2.7 Frequency Sources, Time, and GNSS
  • References
  • 3. Global Positioning System
  • 3.1 Overview
  • 3.2 Space Segment Description
  • 3.3 Control Segment Description
  • 3.4 User Segment
  • 3.5 GPS Geodesy and Time Scale
  • 3.6 Services
  • 3.7 GPS Signals
  • 3.8 GPS Ephemeris Parameters and Satellite Position Computation
  • References
  • 4. GLONASS
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Space Segment
  • 4.3 Ground Segment
  • 4.4 GLONASS User Equipment
  • 4.5 Geodesy and Time Systems
  • 4.6 Navigation Services
  • 4.7 Navigation Signals
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5. Galileo
  • 5.1 Program Overview and Objectives
  • 5.2 Galileo Implementation
  • 5.3 Galileo Services
  • 5.4 System Overview
  • 5.5 Galileo Signal Characteristics
  • 5.6 Interoperability
  • 5.7 Galileo Search and Rescue Mission
  • 5.8 Galileo System Performance
  • 5.9 System Deployment Completion up to FOC
  • 5.10 Galileo Evolution Beyond FOC
  • References
  • 6. BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)
  • 6.1 Overview
  • 6.2 BDS Space Segment
  • 6.3 BDS Control Segment
  • 6.4 Geodesy and Time Systems
  • 6.5 The BDS Services
  • 6.6 BDS Signals
  • References
  • 7. Regional SATNAV Systems
  • 7.1 Quasi-Zenith Satellite System
  • 7.2 Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC)
  • References
  • 8. GNSS Receivers
  • 8.1 Overview
  • 8.2 Antennas
  • 8.3 Front End
  • 8.4 Digital Channels
  • 8.5 Acquisition
  • 8.6 Carrier Tracking
  • 8.7 Code Tracking
  • 8.8 Loop Filters
  • 8.9 Measurement Errors and Tracking Thresholds
  • 8.10 Formation of Pseudorange, Delta Pseudorange, and Integrated Doppler
  • 8.11 Sequence of Initial Receiver Operations
  • 8.12 Data Demodulation
  • 8.13 Special Baseband Functions
  • References
  • 9. GNSS Disruptions
  • 9.1 Overview
  • 9.2 Interference
  • 9.3 Ionospheric Scintillation
  • 9.4 Signal Blockage
  • 9.5 Multipath
  • References
  • 10. GNSS Errors
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Measurement Errors
  • 10.3 Pseudorange Error Budgets
  • References
  • 11. Performance of Stand-Alone GNSS
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Position, Velocity, and Time Estimation Concepts
  • 11.3 GNSS Availability
  • 11.4 GNSS Integrity
  • 11.5 Continuity
  • References
  • 12. Differential GNSS and Precise Point Positioning
  • 12.1 Introduction…
  • 12.2 Code-Based DGNSS
  • 12.3 Carrier-Based DGNSS
  • 12.4 Precise Point Positioning
  • 12.5 RTCM SC-104 Message Formats
  • 12.6 DGNSS and PPP Examples
  • References
  • 13. Integration of GNSS with Other Sensors and Network Assistance
  • 13.1 Overview
  • 13.2 GNSS/Inertial Integration
  • 13.3 Sensor Integration in Land Vehicle Systems
  • 13.4 A-GNSS: Network Based Acquisition and Location Assistance
  • 13.5 Hybrid Positioning in Mobile Devices
  • References
  • 14. GNSS Markets and Applications
  • 14.1 GNSS: A Complex Market Based on Enabling Technologies
  • 14.2 Civil Applications of GNSS
  • 14.3 Government and Military Applications
  • 14.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Least Squares and Weighted Least Squares Estimates
  • Reference
  • Stability Measures for Frequency Sources
  • B.1 Introduction
  • B.2 Frequency Standard Stability
  • B.3 Measures of Stability
  • B.3.1 Allan Variance
  • B.3.2 Hadamard Variance
  • References
  • Free-Space Propagation Loss
  • C.1 Introduction
  • C.2 Free-Space Propagation Loss
  • C.3 Conversion Between Power Spectral Densities and Power Flux Densities
  • References
  • Index
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