DIY DevOps
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DIY DevOps

About the Book

This tutorial is for anyone or team who needs to automate the deployment and maintenance of static websites (html/css/javascript) on a Virtual Private Server instance at If you are capable of following tutorials to create a very basic HTML file, you should have no problem following this tutorial.

We will set up websites on a's droplet (aka Virtual Private Server). 

When I started self-hosting websites on VPS, I realized there was a lot of repetitive work involved in deploying content. Even fixing a small typo involved way too many manual steps. To fix a simple typo, I had to fix the typo on local computer > FTP or scp files up > ssh into web server > copy uploadeded .html file into place > reapply permission. Simply too many manual steps for fixing a typo. I wanted to automate the process so that all of the steps can be done with least amount of manual work. As I was teaching myself how to automate it, I had to turn to many different tutorials/videos/documentations. Unfortunately many tutorials did not exactly fit into my scenarios. I slowly taught myself how to setup/run/automate self-hosted website and slowly became a self-taught DIY DevOps engineer. Obviously a DevOps engineer has many roles, but one important role is automating website content deployment.

Here is a short list of tasks we will complete in this tutorial.

- Buy a domain name at

- Create a SSH key pair on local macOS.

- Upload SSH public key to

- Start a new VPS at digitalocean. We will nickname the new VPS as dserver01.

- Rebuild the new VPS, dserver01.

- Install Apache webserver.

- Sign up with

- Transfer name server from to

- Configure dserver01 with a shell script.

- Disable ssh login by root user.

- Set up 3 websites on Apache.

- Install nginx.

- Configure nginx as a reverse proxy, sitting between internet and Apache web server.

- Install LetsEncrypt.

- Set up .well-known in nginx.

- Get SSL certificates

- Set up nginx to use SSL certificates. Our webserver now serves content encrypted by SSL.

- Configure Apache and nginx to log with real IP of visitors.

- Deploy sample HTML5 website using a HTML/CSS/JS template.

- Using shell script to automate code deployment.

- Using Git

Following topics will be covered in future updates.

- Using Jenkins

- Script to automate configuring apache/nginx to add new websites

About the Author

Paul C
Paul C

DIY DevOps Engineer

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1: Introduction
    • Summary of tasks covered
    • Tools used
    • Low cost
    • Website URLs
    • 3 types of hosting platform
  • Chapter 2: Preparation
    • CLI and SSH
    • Terminal versus iTerm2
    • Incremental changes
    • Target audience
    • cost for domain/VPS
  • Chapter 3: Buy domain name and VPS
    • Get a domain name to play with -
    • Check status of the domain name on
    • Verify with ICANN
    • Create a SSH key pair
    • Digital Ocean
    • Add ssh public key to Digital Ocean
    • Start up a Digital Ocean droplet.
    • Initial ssh into droplet: dserver01
    • Danger with SSH and different computers involved
    • Create a test file on dserver01
    • Rebuild versus destroy a droplet
    • Rebuild a droplet
    • SSHing into a rebuilt droplet
    • Log into rebuilt droplet (dserver01)
    • Firewalld on droplet (dserver01)
    • Browser choice
    • Verify server IP on web page
    • Firefox Private Window
    • Test install Apache web server
    • Status check
    • Signing up with CloudFlare
    • Transfer name server from to
    • Test browsing (use your domain)
    • change IP for A record of
    • CNAME for
    • www versus non-www URL
    • add 2 more subdomains
    • and DNS changes
    • CloudFlare: “Proxied” vs. “DNS only”
    • SSH into dserver01 with hostname
    • Status check
  • Chapter 4: Basic configuration of dserver01
    • yum update
    • Configure dserver01 server
    • Quick primer on bash script
    • First bash script
    • cat, less
    • bash script with functions
    • bash script to set up CentOS 7
    • usera and testuser1 plus ssh public key
    • Update SSH public key in
    • Self deleting
    • firewalld and
    • SSH into dserver01.
    • Check if screen is installed
    • Run
    • Test logging in as usera with sudo privilege
    • failed login attempts
    • Verify screen is installed
    • Self-delete of
    • Disable ssh login for root
  • Chapter 5: Install Apache
    • Update httpd.conf
    • Configure Apache for
    • Add 2 more domains for dev and qa work
  • Chapter 6: Install nginx
    • nginx
    • screen - virtual session
    • tmux
    • openssl dhparam
    • Prepare Apache to work with nginx
    • Free up port 80
    • Install nginx
    • Configure nginx
    • Server blocks in nginx
    • devel, qatest and www
    • systemctl enable
    • Status
  • Chapter 7: LetsEncrypt
    • LetsEncrypt
    • Install LetsEncrypt
    • .well-known
    • Get ssl cert for all 3 domains
    • LetsEncrypt renewal test
    • Update nginx config files to use SSL
    • ssl config for
    • ssl and www to non-www redirect
    • Update file to use SSL
    • Update file to use SSL
    • Get A+ instead of B from
  • Chapter 8: Logging
    • Logging source IP into Apache log files
    • tail -f in multiple iTerm2 panes
    • Real IP
    • access.log: logs before update
    • access.log: logs we want to see after update
    • error.log: logs before update
    • Updating Apache Global configuration
    • nginx Global configuration update
    • update Virtual Host configuration
    • Testing logging with Proxy turned off and on
    • Logrotate
    • Install brew and curl
    • Generate logs for test
    • bin folder
    • Saving command output into a file
    • Tools to use
    • Update logrotate for httpd
    • Logrotate for low volume production
    • Logrotate for high volume production
  • Chapter 9: deploy content with rsync/script
    • Get HTML5 template website
    • Prep on macOS to upload files
    • Uploading website content to dserver01
    • Check uploaded files on dserver01
    • Get
    • Initial run of
    • Deploying to devel, qatest and production
    • Deploy to devel site
    • Deploy to QAtest site
    • Try deploy to Production site without -f y
    • Deploy to Production site with -f y
  • Chapter 10: Git repository
    • Set up Git repo
    • Create a new repository
    • Add SSH Public key on github
    • Git clone the git repo
    • Git checkin - initial
    • Add one file to git repo
    • Deploying content directly from git repo to web server
  • Chapter 11: Jenkins
    • Jenkins and Git
    • Setting up Jenkins server on CentOS 7
    • VPS for jenkserv01
    • Install git
    • Install Jenkins
    • Install nginx
    • Static website by nginx
    • Install LetsEncrypt
    • openssl dhparam in screen
    • .well-known folder for nginx
    • Create SSL cert
    • Reverse Proxy for Jenkins
    • Block port 8080
    • Initial log in into Jenkins
    • Updating Jenkins
    • SSH key pair for user jenkins on jenkserv01
    • Prep dserver01 for Jenkins jobs
    • Test sshing in from jenkserv01 to dserver01
    • Github and Deploy key (SSH public key)
    • Create
    • Create
    • Prep iTerm2 window for use in test
    • Create a Jenkins job to use with Git repo
    • Add SSH Servers in Jenkins
    • Create a Jenkins job to use with rsynced up files
    • Available deployment methods
    • Jenkins Global Security setup
    • Prepare Jenkins job to run with curl
    • Verify Jenkins job for curl
    • curl to run a Jenkins job
    • Available deployment methods
    • Issues with using curl deploy method
    • Use
    • Testing
    • Using
  • Source code

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