The correct lubricant
The correct lubricant
Understanding automotive and industrial lubricants
About the Book
'The correct lubricant' is suitable for plant and fleet personnel at all levels, from artisans to engineers and managers, as well as for oil industry representatives and field engineers.
The book covers basic practical information about lubrication and lubricants.
Viscosity, the most important lubricant characteristic in both oils and greases, is covered first, together with viscosity index. Then some other important characteristics, followed by base oils including some synthetics, and finally the critical performance requirements for various applications.
The second part of the workshop deals with applications, starting with engine oils, then automotive gear and transmission oils, greases, industrial gear oils, circulating oils, compressor oils, hydraulic fluids, fire-resistant fluids, machine tool oils, oil cleanliness, storage and storage stability, finally briefly rust preventives and cutting fluids.
In addition to the essential requirements in each application, this part focuses on the difficult question: When is it advisable, or even necessary, to use synthetic lubricants?
The last part is included for people who use the book as a textbook. They will be challenged to find the correct lubricants to solve various practical problems. If they manage to complete this task, they will show that they have learned a great deal about lubricants.
To help the learners remember important aspects of each chapter, there are many questions and also three revisions in the text. The answers are at the end of the book and on our web page.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 6
1. THREE BASIC ASPECTS OF LUBRICATING OILS 7
1.1 Viscosity (kinematic, dynamic viscosity, ISO VG) 8
1.2 Viscosity of engine oils (SAE, multi-grade) 9
1.3 Viscosity of automotive gear oils 10
1.4 Viscosity index (and viscosity modifiers) 10
1.5 Pour point (and pour point depressant) 11
1.6 Flash point and Noack volatility 11
1.7 EXERCISE (viscosity-temperature chart) 12
1.8 Foam, entrained air and air release (and defoamant) 14
1.9 Base stocks (saturates, aromatic hydrocarbons, Group I+, II+, III+) 15
1.9.1 What does 'synthetic' mean? 16
1.9.2 Polyalphaolefins (PAO) 16
1.9.3 Other synthetic hydrocarbons 16
1.9.4 Switching to PAO 17
1.9.5 Polyalkylene glycols (PAG) (also polar compounds) 17
1.9.6 Esters (and biodegradable lubricants) 17
1.9.7 Naphthenics 18
1.10 Oil performance (and additive requirements) 18
1.11 Water separability (demulsibility) 19
1.12 Supplemental ('proprietary') additives 19
2. REVISION 1 20
3. AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICATING OILS, ENGINES
3.1 Engine oils (also ZDTP, detergents and dispersants) 21
3.2 API (American Petroleum Institute)service categories 22
3.3 Sulphated ash 22
3.4 TBN (Total Base Number) 23
3.5 ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee) 23
3.6 ACEA (Association des Constructeurs Européens d'Automobiles) 24
3.7 Equipment manufacturers (OEM, a brief note) 25
3.8 What oil to use in car engines / Engine oil selection (a brief summary) 26
3.9 Two-stroke petrol engines 27
3.10 Outboard engine and gear oils 27
3.11 Four-stroke motorcycle engines 27
3.12 Gas engines 27
3.13 Marine engines and emergency power generation 28
3.14 Railroad engine oils 28
3.15 Gas turbines 28
3.16 Automotive gear oils for manual gearboxes and axles 29
3.17 Limited-slip differentials 29
3.18 Eaton (formerlyFuller) / ZF-FreedomLine30
3.19 Caterpillar TO-4 30
3.20 Allison 30
3.21 Total Acid Number (TAN) 31
3.22 Automatic transmission fluids (ATF) 32
3.23 Farm equipment oils (UTTO, STOU) 32
3.24 Brake fluids 33
4. REVISION 2 33
5. LUBRICATION CONDITIONS
5.1 Hydrodynamic lubrication 34
5.2 Boundary lubrication (lubricity, anti-wear, EP) 34
5.3 Elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) 35
6. INDUSTRIAL GEAR OILS 36
6.1 Worm gears (PAG) 37
6.2 Continuously variable transmissions (small, industrial type) 38
6.3 Open gears 38
7. GREASES 39
7.1 Grease thickeners 39
7.2 Grease compatibility 39
7.3 Grease consistency 40
7.4 Grease lubricated rolling element bearings 41
7.5 Typical replenishment instructions for big electric motors 42
7.6 Grease-filled gearboxes 42
7.7 Grease selection 42
7.8 Grease or oil? 43
8. BEARINGS, CIRCULATING OILS 44
8.1 Rolling element bearings 44
8.2 Plain bearings 44
8.3 Paper machines 45
8.4 Steam turbines 45
9.1 Air compressors (also coalescer filters) 46
9.2 Vacuum pumps 48
9.3 Other gases 48
9.4 Refrigeration compressors 49
10. HYDRAULIC FLUIDS 50
10.1 Fire-resistant fluids 53
10.2 Oil cleanliness 53
11. LUBRICANT STORAGE 54
12. TRANSFORMER OILS 54
13. SHELF LIFE OF LUBRICANTS 54
14. MACHINE TOOLS 55
15. CUTTING FLUIDS (for grinding and metal cutting) 55
16. RUST PREVENTIVES 55
17. REVISION 3 56
18. CHALLENGE 57
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