A Tour of Python 3
A Tour of Python 3
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A Tour of Python 3

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Completed on 2020-07-13

About the Book

This book is an overview of the features of the Python programming language. In the 36 chapters, there are more than 300 small programs, where you will learn many details about all main aspects of programming in this language.

The book is primarily intended to be used with the modern compiler of the third version of the language and highlights the differences between Python 2 and Python 3 where that makes sense. A number of sections explain the new features appeared in Python 3.8. 

In general, the difficulty of the examples increases to the end of the book, but you can read the chapters and the sections in any order.

About the Author

Andrew Shitov
Andrew Shitov

A passionate promoter of the Raku programming language

Table of Contents

Part 1

Chapter 1. Printing and Formatting

Hello, World!

Formatted output

Formatting strings

F-strings

More on formatting

Formatted strings with named arguments

Echo

Another echo

Using pprint

Printing in Python 2 vs Python 3

Format precision

Emoji

Chapter 2. Python Code

Indentation

Namespaces

Chapter 3. Variables

Variables

Variable names

Deleting a variable

Dummy variable

The global keyword

How to swap the values

Star assignment

Chapter 4. Numbers

Integer vs floating-point division

Using complex numbers

Decimal calculations

Complex roots

Big integers

Size of an integer

Fractions

Equal floats

Round a number

Chapter 5. Strings

The length of a string

Multi-line strings

Indexing a string character

Taking the last character

The second-to-last character

Getting a substring

String repetition

Reversing a string

Splitting a string

Raw strings

More on raw strings

Removing accents from a string

Removing \n

A more complex stripping

Using lambdas to strip a line

ASCII values of the characters

Character Unicode names

Using casefolding

Unicode normalization

Split words

Chapter 6. Operators

Non-trivial assignments

Augmenting assignment

The + operator

The in keyword

Redefine +

More on redefining +

Walrus :=

Using *

Chapter 7. Functions

Creating a function

Default parameter values

Named arguments

More on default values

Passing a list to a function

Multiple return from a function

Return a tuple

Arbitrary number of function arguments

Using kwargs

Position of the variadic arguments

Positional parameters only

Default parameters are frozen

Simple documentation

Annotations

LRU cache

Decorators

Double decorator

Chapter 8. Built-in Functions

The built-in function len

reverse and reversed

any and all

Using enumerate

The map function

The id function

Using filter

Custom sort function

More on sort key

Part 2

Chapter 9. Types

Data types

Type casting

Tuples vs lists

None

Ordering None

is vs ==

A tuple with a single element

Create a tuple

Chapter 10. Lists

Pushing to an array and popping back

Negative index

Last elements

Appending data to a list

Remove an item from a list

Another way of removing an element

Copying a list

Find a position in a list

Reverse a list

Rotating a list

Shuffle a list

Join list items

Clone a list

More on cloning lists

Append vs. extend

Beware of deleting items

Chapter 11. Dictionaries

Iterating a dictionary

The items method of dictionaries

Keys and values of a dictionary

Using get with dictionaries

Iterating over a dictionary

Sort by value

Merge dictionaries

More on merging dictionaries

Lists to dictionaries

Invert a dictionary

Chapter 12. Sets

Sets

Subtracting sets

Working with sets

Frozen sets

Set operations

Chapter 13. Ranges

Ranges

An open range

More on ranges

Counting backwards

Range properties

Sum of a range

Ranges and strings

Chapter 14. Regular Expressions

Getting a number using regular expressions

Date and regular expressions

Case-insensitive matching

Unicode digits

Compiled regular expressions

Extract the numbers and the words

Chapter 15. Date and Time

Daylight saving time

Leap year

Date difference

Weekday today

Measuring time

Another way of measuring time

Part 3

Chapter 16. Control Flow

Boolean if

The elif keyword

Chained condition

Empty values

A string with a zero

forin

Using forin with strings

The while loop

Using else in a while loop

More on else in a loop

Breaking a while loop

Continuing a while loop

Using pass in loops

Variable state after the loop

Using finally

for and else

Ternary operator

More on conditional statements

Breaking nested loops

Boolean shortcuts

if vs. in

Functions in for

Chapter 17. Command Line

Getting user input

Command-line arguments

argv[0]

Integer as input

Read a password

Clear screen

Chapter 18. Modules

Installing a module

import vs local

Testing the main code

Module alias

Path to the module

Chapter 19. Files

Reading a file

Write to a file

File size

Does the file exist?

Using with to open files

Open two files in a single with

Using writelines

Temporary file

Compare files

Reading CSV

Remove empty lines

Get the line N from a file

Another way to read the Nth line

Last line of a file

Chapter 20. Working with the System

Using sys

Printing to STDERR

React to Ctlr+C

System calls

Capture system output

Capture lines

C interface

Fortran interface

Chapter 21. Exceptions

Using assert

Custom Exception

Exception with a message

Part 4

Chapter 22. List and Map Comprehensions

List comprehensions

Map comprehensions

Using list comprehension as a filter

Nested fors in a list comprehension

Chapter 23. Operations with Lists

Adding up lists

Reversing a list

Add up two lists

How to zip the lists

Count list items

Increment items in a list

Another way to increment items in a list

Difference of the lists

Removing duplicates from a list

Another method of de-duplicating a list

Merge the lists and preserve the order

Another way of merging lists

Print indices and values of a list

Concatenate a list of strings

Chapter 24. Multi-dimensional Lists

Multi-dimensional lists

List of tuples

Select sublists based on criteria

Version 3 of converting list of tuples

Sort the lists by their second item

Nested subscripting

More on subscripting nested lists

Flatten a list

Flatting a list with iterators

Transpose a matrix

Transpose a matrix

Hello, World! with NumPy

Transpose a matrix in NumPy

The T attribute in NumPy

Chapter 25. Iterators and Generators

Iterators

Using yield

Two generators

Custom iterator

Using StopIteration

Customr iterators in a loop

Chapter 26. Functional Programming

Lambda function

Currying

Closure

Closures in Python

Chapter 27. Concurrent programming

Coroutines

Asynchronous coroutines

Run a thread

Thread speed

Part 5

Chapter 28. Object-Oriented Programming

Classes

Class name

Count the objects

Objects to string

Empty objects

Using with with classes

__init__ and __del__

The @classmethod and @staticmethod decorators

Using dir with objects

Polymorphic methods

Using super

Using dir with classes

A custom dir

Custom len

Using __repr__

__str__ vs. __repr__

Sorting objects

More on sorting objects

+ as a -

Cimparing objects

Matrix multiplication @

Class operators

Deep copy of a list

Part 6

Chapter 29. Numerical Sequences

Factorial

Recursive factorial

Another recursive factorial

Computing a factorial

Prime numbers

Fibonacci numbers

Armstrong number

Chapter 30. Algorithms

Bubble sort

Quick sort

Multiply by 2

Eratosthenes sieve

Chapter 31. Maths Problems

Euler problem #1

Minimum and maximum

Computing a product

Number of digits

Area of a triangle

More on area of a triangle

A recursive sum

Average value

Mean value

Median value

Compute the value of π

Approaching the value of π with Fractions

Chapter 32. String Problems

Strings to integers

Count capitals

Check if is a binary

Keep vowels

Reverse a number

Count letters

Reverse a sentence

Remove double spaces

Spell a number

Word to number

Balanced parentheses

Anagram test

Chapter 33. Interview Problems

Unique random values

Another version of unique randoms

Odd and even

Find a missing number

Another way to find a missing number

Find a duplicate

Calculator

Monte Carlo method

Count bits

Guess the number

Random histogram

Random Gauss

All unique

Find a repeating element

Are all items the same?

Compare the elements in two lists

Print a tree

Pascal’s triangle

Part 7

Chapter 34. Internet and Web

Load a page by URL

Web server

Chapter 35. Graphics

Simple drawing

Openning an image

Image size

Rotate an image

Thumbnails

Thumbnail vs. resize

Pixel’s colour

Chapter 36. Miscellaneous

Using the pickle module

Working with JSON

UUID

UUID v4

The array module

MySQL connection

Using memcached

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